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  1. BrianSGermain

    Chopping Is Just The Beginning

    A reserve ride is an exciting adventure no matter how many jumps you have under your belt. Preparatory training is obviously the best way to ensure that you walk away unscathed, but it is my experience that the simulations we create are not as realistic as they could be. In many cases, many of us will argue, they are not as good as they need to be. The purpose of this article is to suggest possible improvements to the state of the art in emergency procedure training. If we envision beyond what we have done in the past, improvement is assured, and the safe conclusion of parachute malfunctions will increase in frequency. If we can simulate cutaway jumps more realistically, skydivers will be calmer in emergency situations, and more skillful. Elaborate simulation, in my experience, will also result in greater awareness and recall, more efficient actions, and less emotional trauma once the event is over. The first issue to be addressed by our sport as a whole is our simulation equipment. Although a vest with handles may be very helpful for establishing the general flow of handle-pulling, it is a far cry from what the event will actually feel like. Many jumpers have reported, upon landing from their first cutaway, that things did not feel or look remotely the way they expected. Handles were not where the jumper expected them to be, pull forces were not what they anticipated, nor was the feeling of the experience similar to the training process that was supposed to prepare them for this event. It is my experience, however, that when we take thoughtful steps to improve our training methods and equipment, the gap between expectation and reality can be closed significantly. The most important piece of equipment in any simulation is the mind. Creating a clear visualization of the scenario is essential, no matter how silly it may look to bystanders. The job of the Instructor in these situations is to provide insightful clarification, ideally based on their own experience. Set the emotional stage for the student in every possible way, describing the details as clearly as possible, leaving nothing out. Allow yourself to get wrapped up in the excitement that is inevitable in such experiences. This will not only make the simulation feel more real, it will help illuminate the natural mental reaction of the student to intense stress. If over-reaction or under-reaction is apparent, further training is necessary. If the student failed to perform, the instructor simply has more work to do. It continues to be my strong opinion that a suspended harness is absolutely essential for the best possible training. Given the vast amount of money we now spend on aircraft and student gear, skimping on this key element of teaching equipment is shortsighted, and most often a product of laziness and compromise. If building a hanging harness cost thousands of dollars, the financial argument might hold more merit, but this is most decidedly not the case. There are many possible methods that cost very little, and can be created in just an hour or two. I know, I build a new hanging harness at almost every dropzone I travel to in the process of running my canopy skills and safety courses. I do this because I want to offer my course participants the best possible training, and because an alarming percentage of skydiving schools have done away with this vital piece of training equipment. This needs to change if we are to improve the safety of our sport. Let's start with the actual harness. When I find suspended harnesses in use, most often the actual rig is an uncomfortable, dilapidated old rig from the early 1980's, hung from the ceiling by attachment points that are way too close together to simulate a realistic experience. In the best cases, there is a three-ring setup that allows the jumper to cut away and drop a few inches. This is a great training aid, but what if the rig was a more modern adjustable harness that could accurately reflect the fit and handle placement of the rig they will actually be jumping? For that matter, what if we hung them in the rig they were actually going to jump? What if the suspension apparatus was long enough to practice kicking out of line-twists? What if the toggles simulated the resistance of an actual parachute using bungees or weights? What if you pulled on straps attached to the bottom of the harness each time they flared, to simulate the pitch change? What if, as crazy as it sounds, you went to the local hardware store and picked up a high-powered carpet blower, a.k.a. “snail fan”, and angled it up at the harness to reflect the feeling of the relative wind? This is the kind of outside-the-box thinking that creates better simulations, and better training. Further, this is how we prepare our students for an actual malfunction and reduce the risk of pilot error. For experienced jumpers, I highly recommend hanging up in your own rig. This will clarify handle placement under load, allow you to explore strap tightness possibilities, and give you the opportunity to experience actual pull forces when your repack cycle is up. If you do not have stainless steel hardware on your rings, please use fabric connection points rather than the carabiner attachment displayed in these photos. Another key element of malfunction simulation is to follow through with the complete jump, rather than stopping after the handles are pulled. In reality, the adequate performance of emergency procedures is just the first in a long list of steps that lead to a safe landing. For instance, what if the cutaway harness had Velcro reserve toggles that needed to be first peeled upward and then pulled downward? Many people, myself included, have tried simply pulling the reserve toggles downward to find that they would not release. Missing details like this can lead to a student feeling more angst than is necessary, and can result in further stress-induced mistakes with major consequences. Additionally, proper exploration of the reserve canopy is important for a good flight pattern, accuracy and landing flare following a malfunction. How much slack is in the brake lines? Where is the stall point? What is the flare response on this brand new canopy? A good cutaway followed by a broken ankle on landing is still a bad day. Simulate the whole jump, and there will be fewer surprises. The final issue I want to cover on the topic of better emergency procedures training is the inclusion of deliberate adrenaline management efforts following the deployment of the reserve canopy. Carrying the emotional momentum of a malfunction all the way to the ground definitely increases the chances of a lousy landing. High levels of stress takes time to sluff-off, but a skilled operator also knows how and when to slow down. Once you have pulled all the handles you need to pull, taking three long, slow, deep breaths while gazing at the horizon with a smile of relief on your face can change your mood, and your fate. Get your composure back, and your optimism will follow. From there, skill is just a short step away. This process can and should be included in every emergency procedure simulation to create a habit that is likely to be carried out in the sky. Following such quiescent procedures allows the mind to more easily let go of the recent past and focus on the present moment and the near future: 1) Check altitude and location 2) Find a safe landing area 3) Explore the reserve 4) Fly a good pattern 5) Flare beautifully 6) Walk away with a smile on your face 7) Thank your rigger A malfunction does not need to be viewed as an emergency, especially if you are truly prepared; it is just a change of plans. A complete simulation can be the difference between a horrifying emergency and a well-executed contingency plan. If we handle it well, a main parachute malfunction can actually be fun. I have found few experiences more rewarding than a complicated situation that I figured out on the fly, and despite my fear, I kept my head and did the right thing. In short, a parachute malfunction is an opportunity to prove to yourself and the world that you can handle yourself in a crisis, and with realistic training, your success can be an inevitable conclusion. About the Author: Brian Germain is a parachute designer, author, teacher, radio personality, keynote speaker with over 15,000 jumps, and has been an active skydiver for 30 years. He is the creator of the famed instructional video "No Sweat: Parachute Packing Made Easy", as well as the critically acclaimed book The Parachute and its Pilot. You can get more of Brian’s teaching at Adventure Wisdom, Big Air Sportz, Transcending Fear, and on his vast YouTube Channel
  2. BrianSGermain

    Wing-loading and Parachute Performance

    I have been thinking about the effects of volume on size more since I wrote this article. I believe that that balance of power between D1 and D2 as it relates to scale has a profound effect on the flight characteristics. Given the fact that canopy drag changes while body drag does not, large canopies; even with an adjusted airfoil height, will never have as long a recovery arc as their smaller counterparts. Likewise, large canopies will always have a higher pitch angle in full flight due to their higher drag value, and will consequently have a flatter glide ratio. That said; the non-linear scale effects are still something to be considered, as are the differences between canopy designs. We need to consider all of the variables if we are to accurately predict a parachutes flight characteristics, and any single metric will be insufficient.
  3. BrianSGermain

    Wing-loading and Parachute Performance

    To clarify the method I used for calculating internal volume: Span x Chord x [*Rib height] Rib height = maximum rib height divide by two, averaged value of all ribs This is not an exact figure, however it is an expedient way to make the calculations. If the math takes too long, other manufacturers are not likely to measure their volumes. If all the manufacturers use this method, we will level to playing field and make volume comparisons across products a quite valuable number. That said, the total number of ribs alters the inflated volume of the canopy, a fact which must be taken into account. In other words, a standard seven cell will have a larger inflated volume than a nine cell with the exact same ribs. I am not yet clear on how we will factor this into the equation, but acknowledge the necessary of this amendment. Again, the goal of the use of this number is to help parachute customers to have another metric to predict a parachutes performance beyond just 2-D area. There is no doubt that other variables have a huge impact on parachute performance beyond area and volume alone. These variable include: (elliptical taper, line trim, line length, location and duration of max rib height, line attachment displacement, fabric type, line type and diameter, number of stitch rows and thread type, and undoubtably several others that I have not thought of in this moment. Nevertheless, volume is a significant feature, and the customers should be able to compare differences between designs.
  4. BrianSGermain

    Why Your Canopy Is Slapping You Around

    If, as you say, 8-10 lbs of line stow extraction force is necessary to prevent a hard opening, why do the thousands of semi-stowless bags open softly and beautifully? It seems to me that the issue is bag dump. In my experience, elastics that are too tight (other than the closing stows), cause off heading openings and line twists. From what I understand, out of sequence line deployment is the focus of the "double stow" religion, as the belief is that lines that come off the bag out of sequence will cause tension knots. I have not seen this in the field very often, and the risks posed by double stowing seem to out weight the need for this paranoia-driven panic to double stow everything.
  5. BrianSGermain

    Teaching Students To Navigate The Landing Pattern

    Corey, I think that fear of mistakes on the students part is the fundamental to being a caring instructor. It is just like being a parent, in that the desire to prevent harm is often so strong that we prevent learning through direct experience. It is true that the paradigm from which instructors come creates a tendency to continue in that direction, nevertheless evolution is part of the quest for higher levels of safety. If we find a balance between the two ends of the spectrum, and say, have radios but only use them to serious situations, true safety can be achieved. We can use the radio to teach, through asking good questions of the student under canopy that lead to understanding, rather than just giving them the answers, we will be on the road to an expanded model. That, I believe, is where we are headed.
  6. BrianSGermain

    Teaching Students To Navigate The Landing Pattern

    It is interesting to me that in the US and other countries where radios are always used, the case is made why we absolutely need them. The idea that a first or second jump student is emotionally incapable of flying a pattern to a safe landing is unthinkable in this cultural context. In countries such as Norway and Sweden, places that tend to have the most favorable incident statistics, radios are rarely used at all. Is it possible that we are using radios in the States to mask our hidden agenda of not wanting to spend the time to teach our students how to fly their parachutes? Is it possible that the human factors argument, for most people, is not valid, and has merely been a mechanism of a litigious society once again impinging on human freedom? Philosophical discussion aside, it is my agenda to make sure that everyone who flies a parachute knows how to do it safety. It is through articles like this one that we can get skydivers thinking about HOW to teach safe parachuting methods. We need to create responsible canopy pilots who understand the dynamics of the situation on a very deep level, and your article is another part of that puzzle. Thank you for writing it.
  7. BrianSGermain

    Staying Current During Winter

    Evan: This a a good point if someone does not have stainless steel hardware, and is planning in swinging around wildly in the harness. However, at just one "G", under normal circumstances, I have never seen a problem with metal on metal for this practice, and I have been doing it for many years. However, if it really concerns you, try a climbing sewn "quick draw" to prevent metal on metal contact.
  8. BrianSGermain

    Exit Order Safety

    It is quite obvious that the term "prop blast penetration" doesn't work for most people. I liked the alliterative quality, it is kinda fun to say, but I am willing to let it go. I think that "forward throw" is a great term that I have heard as well, or perhaps "relative wind penetration", "jumprun penetration" or even "horizontal distance traveled". How about we put it to a vote and have Sangiro change the article based on the people's choice?
  9. BrianSGermain

    Sky Camp

    We travel the world teaching canopy flight courses, and the best part of the job is visiting wonderful people like we found at Sky Camp. The dropzone is great, but the people are the best part of this well-run, inspired operation. The vibe trickles down from the top, and this place is on its way to fame and fortune.
  10. So, feel free to discuss!
  11. You can also listen to the entire show here: However, there are diagrams and supporting video in the youtube version that may help to clarify some of the points especially in the third part. Enjoy!! Brian
  12. BrianSGermain


    Breathing problems are not uncommon in newer jumpers, but it goes away with repeated exposure to the freefall environment. It is most likely that you had your mouth open, and the relative wind was not allowing you to breath normally. Don't worry, you didn't invent this. Just keep your mouth closed and breathe through your nose and the problem will go away. -Brian
  13. If you know of any students who are wrestling with fear in skydiving, please forward this video to them. Thanks Everybody. Be safe out there. Bri
  14. BrianSGermain

    Canopy Ground School and Tunnel Camp (Combined!)

    We are working on putting this same event on in Colorado as well. We will keep you posted... BG