You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 4
You Gotta Do It Right, Every Time
In the Frankenstein world of skydiving aircraft--where the original innards have been ripped out and kinda-sorta replaced here and there with lighter components--we’ve had to rethink this whole “seatbelts” thing with an eye to minimalism and ease of use. (For contrast, check out the amount of webbing with which aerobatic pilots festoon themselves.) In almost every case, skydiving has had to invent new procedures to maximize the utility of restraints while lacking the backing support of a seat.
Hear this, dear readers: These “new procedures” vary in effectiveness. Very few skydivers are properly educated. The details matter.
Belts for Benchwarmers
Are you sitting in a comfy, capacious aircraft with side benches? Lucky you! You can enjoy the proven-safest restraint configurations available to modern skydiving. Hooray!
The reason that lap belts should only be used by side-facing skydivers is that they are maximally effective when there is a solid support surface behind the occupant: a seat back, an aircraft sidewall or a bulkhead. (A particularly burly swooper doesn’t count.)
Already bored and sure you know how this lap belt thing goes? Hold up. Did you know that you should be routing your lap belt between your main lift web and body when you’re sitting on a side bench?**
“Whoa,” you say. “This means that the restraint belt does not simply go over the top of my glorious lap, as I am used to.”
You, dear reader, are correct in that observation. Routing the male end of the lap belt between your belly and main lift web as it’s on its way to the latch on the other side is the way to go. It’s proven to make you less likely to slide out of it in the slippery, bucket-seatless context of a jump plane.
Restraints For Floor Folks
If you’re on the floor, this is your huckleberry: A single Hooker belt, wrapped around a single hip, close to the ring. These aren’t as good as the big-plane lap belts, because single-side belts have a disconcerting tendency to impose massive, twisting, sideways loads on a jumper's spine. There’s also a huge flail arc for the head, which can result in significantly reduced thinking for the rest of the jumper’s natural life. That said: if it comes down to it, at least your meat stays put, inside the plane, and you don't end up suffocating your buddies at the front of the cabin.
“What fresh hell,” you are probably wondering, “Is a Hooker belt?” Calm down--you’ve totally seen one. A Hooker belt is what we call single-point skydiver restraints. They’re ‘Hooker belts’ because they were invented by Jack Hooker. (If you recall, we mentioned him earlier in this series; he’s the fellow who developed restraints in response to the multiple-fatality crash in Hinckley, Illinois that claimed many of his friends.)
To see how it’s done, take a little journey with me back to nineteen-ninety-something, when the FAA last took photos for its Sport Parachuting Advisory Circular. Play some Ace of Base and put your hair up in a side ponytail so the photos aren’t so jarring, then take a look.
1. Sit close to the attachment point, facing the back of the plane.
2. Pass the male end of the restraint under the upper part of the leg strap closest to the attachment point.
3. Pass it under the main lift web*.
4. Latch it close to the hip ring.
5. Aim to sit so you have a 45-degree angle between the point the restraint attaches to you and where it attaches to the floor.
6. Tighten until there is little slack. The more slack you have, the further you will travel before impacting something in the cabin in a no-bueno manner. A short leash also minimizes twisting and flail arc.
Once you’ve got those methods down, it’s not over. There are a few more points to keep in mind, besides:
- Restraints don’t work if you can slide out. Ask the jumper who was ejected out the left door during a forced landing in Oklahoma. She was sitting with her back to the pilot and the belt only over her lap. Routing it through the harness would have kept her inside the plane, which is an excellent place to be when the plane is bouncing and crunching all over the ground.
- Beware the leg-strap-only method. In a tiny plane? Tempted to just tug a belt through your leg strap and fuhgettaboutit? Think twice. Crash tests have proven that single point, single tether restraints are not very effective.
- The direction you’re facing is actually important. Research has shown that, in order for the restraints to work properly, parachutists must face the tail (“aft”).
- Never ever ever share a restraint with another skydiver. Everyone on the aircraft needs to be secured individually. Yes, this is just as true for tandems. Tandem students should never be restrained by just clipping to the tandem instructor. If the tandem instructor is incapacitated during a crash, the student cannot unhook. This has killed at least one tandem student in Australia (by drowning).
- Don’t double up. You must have a single point of detachment to begin egress*** in an emergency. Panicky flailing, fear, fire and smoky visual impairment can all play into the ability to get out. Two attachment latches is one too many to work out in that kind of environment, as has been proven over and over again.
- Curb your camera. In the event of an impact, make no mistake--your flimsy little G3 is a projectile weapon, as is every loose bit and/or bob that’s rattling around your person. The length of a Twin Otter is plenty of space for them to reach ramming speed. Don’t let them get the opportunity.
- Leave your chest strap the hell out of this. Chest buckles are only rated for 500 pounds, while most other harness buckles are rated for five times that. If it does hold, it’ll flail you around like a demented cowboy misusing a lasso.
- Been in a cra...uh, forced landing? Get your gear checked out. Even though it’s a key part of how we protect ourselves from aircraft oopsies, a parachute harness was developed for deceleration from freefall, not partnering up with a restraint belt. Most manufacturers have not tested their harness configurations to see how they weather the jangling, multi-directional abuse of a forced landing. If you’ve been in a plane that’s gone down unexpectedly, send your rig to a rigger to check its airworthiness.
- The “tight cabin” theory simply ain’t true. Tightly packed loads do no better than their emptier counterparts during forced landings. The only thing that will protect you is a restraint system, not being shoved in like a sardine.
- You’re not buckling up for yourself. If you take one thing away from all this talk of restraints, remember this: When you do up that belt, it’s not for you. It’s for everybody you might crush if that plane smashes in. It’s for everybody you might fall on from the apex of your surprised-face zero-g levitation to the cabin roof. It’s for the pilot, who needs to be able to count on a certain balance of weight when shit is actively hitting the fan.
And it’s for your friends--so they don’t have to stand around a bonfire in tears, wondering how to prevent it all from happening again.
* The main lift web is the vertical part of the front of the harness--the webbing that your cutaway and reserve handles live in.
You nailed it Annette!
Every decade .... or so ...... skydivers ask me to sew up an ash bag. Now the local DZO is "encouraging" me to sew up my own ash bag. "It will be easier on the survivors."
I would prefer to spend my time sewing seat-belts ...... 'cus more seat-belts equal fewer ash dives.
Clarification: Hooker (single-point skydiver restraints) come standard on new jump planes like Kodiaks and PAC 750s, and can be retrofitted to another dozen types of old jump-planes.
"The main lift web is the vertical part of the front of the harness--the webbing that your cutaway and reserve handles live in." Correct me if I am wrong, but if you need this defined than you should not be jumping. Know your gear, or no jumping.
With all respect, @Fanello1775 -- these articles are written for the purposes of learning, and they're written with love for people who have just started jumping as well as very experienced jumpers. It's my aim to create an atmosphere where very new folks can feel on board, invited and accepted, not told to $%&# off because they don't know enough.
Excellent articles and information. Thank you for your time and efforts here! I have been to far too many DZs (including my current DZ) where people actually actively believe that wearing seatbelts is MORE dangerous than not. The DZO and one of our pilots, included. Quick question, only because I'm being lazy this morning and can't quickly find the answer. We had some new kids out at the DZ this weekend who said they've changed the seatbelt recommendation to 1500 ft. I've been used to 1000 ft in a Cessna, and some bigger DZs ask for 1500 ft in the larger planes. Has there been an official change to 1500 ft. all around? Did I miss this? Thanks!
@NickyCal -- Thanks! <3
The whole "seatbelt altitude thing"...this is, as I have recently discovered, a point of, like, *major* contention. I'm working on collecting all the bits together from all the sources and working it over into something readable. :D Watch this space. You ain't alone in your wonderment. xx
There has been no "official" change to seat-belts off altitude, but fashion is trending upwards .... similar to the way fashionable opening altitudes are trending upwards.
The old logic of waiting until you climb above 1000 feet considered that you were high enough to open a reserve and the engine(s) had survived the first power reduction.
Most aircraft engines are only rated for full, take-off power for a minute or two. Run them too long and they overheat and melted bits start falling off the engine(s).
The new logic - behind waiting until you climb above 1500 feet - is related to collision avoidance. Since most of the "Sunday fliers" enter the landing pattern at 1,000 feet, that is the altitude with the greatest risk of a mid-air collision.
More articles in this category:
- You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 4 - by Annette O'Neil (Posted: 2016-10-18)
- You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 3 - by Annette O'Neil (Posted: 2016-10-04)
- You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 2 - by Annette O'Neil (Posted: 2016-09-27)
- You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 1 - by Annette O'Neil (Posted: 2016-09-20)
- How To Be A Good Passenger in a Jump Plane - by Gary Peek (Posted: 2003-08-21)