Is Speed Skydiving Boring

    The Sensations
    Speed skydiving in principle sounds like a high-octane, extreme discipline in skydiving. However, when you hear it’s a solo sport, you then think it “sounds boring”. But it is anything but boring and it’s for one simple reason; speed skydiving has a unique adrenaline-filled freefall sensation. It feels like those first few seconds of normal freefall where you accelerate rapidly, but throughout the entire speed skydive.
    Speed skydiving is measured as an average over the vertical kilometer (from 8,858 to 5,577ft). That means if you do it well, you can expect to reach your peak speed at the bottom end of the measuring gate. Some skydivers say it is hard to quantify what normal terminal velocity is, however in speed skydiving it’s definitely more tangible. The sensation is of freefalling seriously fast and that’s slightly scary whilst giving you a big adrenaline rush!
    Who Am I?
    I jump regularly at Skydive Hibaldstow primarily doing FS team camera work and wingsuiting. Although I have never been on the International Speed Skydiving circuit or a speed skydiving training camp, I always try to attend the UK Speed Skydiving Nationals and seminars. I’m not a freeflyer and I’m not even the best speed skydiver, but I have been enjoying it for 9 years.
    Doing It Well
    Doing it well is another matter of course. I have never done an average of over 270mph, whereas Mark Calland (UK jumper) has been over 300mph unbelievably. Speed skydiving requires you to strike a 3-way balance between feeling the airflow on your body, making fine corrections and relaxing. Putting too much input in or being too ridged and it’s all going to go pear-shaped.
    What to wear plays big part of getting a good average. Some speed skydivers like to wear bright red all-PVC spray on gimp-suits. Sorry but that is too kinky for me! If you can handle them, you can get some good speeds. Many more however prefer to wear a surfers rash vest and some jeans. The jeans help to smooth the airflow, provide some good stability and grip.
    A Typical Speed Skydive
    So let me describe a typical speed skydive. I get out of the aircraft between 12,000 to 13,000ft (the same altitude as the 8-way jumpers at nationals) and for the first 15 seconds, I slowly start to build up my speed by going into a progressively steeper and steeper track. After what feels like a long time, I begin to feel the air on the back of my calves. This is when I know I am now in the vertical airflow phase of the jump.
    Around this point, I feel a sudden acceleration and I know I am passing the 200mph mark. It’s almost like I’m passing through a pressure wave and this is common amongst other speed skydivers. For extra speed, I try to flatten my arms by my hips and bring my ankles together.
    Not long after, I pass through the opening gate of the measured kilometer. By then, I am already doing over 230mph. At this measuring phase of the jump, I’m concentrating on stability with every nerve cell in my body. Ideally, I’m trying not to make any inputs in at all. In fact, I’m trying to relax whilst balancing on what feels like a pinhead. Another sensation is like falling through an invisible narrow tube barely wide enough for my shoulders. I’m talking a lot about sensations in this article, but that is one of the big attractions to the discipline.
    Being symmetrical is also very important. A slight hip twist, one leg in front of the other and I can expect radical oscillations. Simply relaxing often cures the problem and I can continue to job of accelerating away.
    The final and most important part of the speed skydive is the deceleration to 120mph! I do this when I hear my two L&B; audibles beeping away inside my Oxygn fullface helmet. For those that don’t know, I’m completely deaf in one ear. So I pack them next to each other. You wouldn’t want to miss your beeps at those speeds.
    Pulling out of a 250mph swoop is not as gruesome as it sounds. You simply arch your body slightly and you begin to peel out into a swoop. As the speed decreases, you then bring your arms in front of you to a normal flat body position. All this takes less than 4 seconds and this makes you realise how fast you were actually going.
    Once you land, you unclip the two L&B; Pro-Tracks (not the ones from your helmet) from you harness lateral straps and plug them into the Jump Track software, which produces neat and tidy graphs showing your performance. In competition, each competitor does 6 rounds and the average of their best 3 go forwards.
    It’s exciting watching the scores come in and seeing your own progression. You would be surprised that being a fatty has little to do with going fast. I’m on the slim side and 2 out of the 5 worlds fastest recorded times have been by other slim built skydivers.
    Having a premature opening of your parachute over 200mph is extremely dangerous. In preparation for a speed skydive, I take a fresh closing loop and shorten it to the point where I can only just get the closing pin in. In addition, I make sure I have two audibles in my helmet and I put gaffer tape on the edges of the visor of my full face.
    There should be no more than three speed skydivers on a load to prevent traffic problems. The first and last part of the jump involve tracking and it’s possible to cover large distances quickly. Being able to keep a heading is vital.
    The last thing is that your BOC spandex must be in good condition.
    There are very few disciplines where you can feel how fast you are going and that makes it a real adrenaline buzz. Whilst it is a solo discipline, there is a lot of excited interaction and camaraderie between the jumpers at competitions as they evaluate each other’s jumps and acceleration graphs. You can take part without having to do lots of coached training camps. It’s definitely not boring!
    Doesn’t covering a vertical kilometer in less than 10 seconds sound like fun?
    More information:

    1. Speed skydiving seminar at Hibaldstow

    2. ISSA

    3. Larsen & Brusgaard – Kind sponsors of the discipline

    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Improving Your Sequential Skills

    I've seen a lot of skydivers who want to improve their sequential skills but don't quite know how to go about it. They jump their butts off but never seem to get any better. They learn just enough to dive down and latch onto somebody, but that's about it. Somehow, they fell through the cracks when it came to learning the basics.
    I blame some of this on experienced skydivers who don't take the time to work with up-and-coming skydivers. I blame some of it on the speed with which we whisk jumpers through our training courses. I blame some of it on the instructors for not making sure students can perform basic freefall maneuvers. And I blame some of the students, themselves, for not asking for help.
    So, for those of you who may have fallen through the cracks or want to improve your flying, here are a few simple ways to tune up your freefall skills.
    Learn to Calm Down
    You can't enjoy or concentrate on a skydive unless you are calm. There is no magic formula for achieving calmness -- it is just something you have to do on your own.
    Exercise, proper rest and diet can help, but inner calmness is something you have to find within yourself. Just try to leave your troubles behind when you come to the drop zone. Focus on enjoying your day of freedom.
    Breathe -- take slow deep breaths both in the airplane and in freefall. Stay mentally focused but relaxed, not tense.
    Learn to filter out distractions right before and during the skydive. There are a lot of distractions on a skydive (people talking in the aircraft, the sound of the engines, the wind, your fear of forgetting a point, and yes, even your fear of falling). With practice, you can learn to filter out distractions. Think about your skydive and how good it will feel once you're in the air.
    Establish a Good Fall Rate
    Before you can do anything related to sequential, you must fall at just about the same speed as the other jumpers. Before you find yourself floating on a big-way sequential dive, check your fall rate on a smaller one. Do a simple 4-way maneuver (star to open accordion and back to a star, for example). Monitor who is falling faster or slower.
    Try to find a common fall rate for your group. Heavier people, or faster fallers, should wear a jumpsuit with a little extra fabric to slow down their fall rate, and slow fallers should wear tight suits and weights.
    Finding this common ground is sometimes easier said than done, especially if you are jumping with different groups. But try to work out the fall rate first before moving on to more advanced moves.
    Start Small and Get Coached
    Practice 2-, 3- and 4-ways instead of trying to get on the big-ways right off the bat. If you're a student or just getting into formation skydiving, this is what you should be doing anyway. If you have been jumping for some time but are still having problems, you might have to swallow a little pride and go back to the basics.
    In either case, get an experienced skydiver to coach you and your group. Don't waste time floundering around by yourselves. Get your jumps on video if at all possible. Make each jump count.
    Practice! Practice! Practice!
    Try to make several jumps with the same group, and make as many jumps as you can back-to-back. Even if you can't afford to jump every weekend, lump several jumps together when you can jump. Skydiving is no different than any other sport -- you have to practice to be good.
    Give Yourself Time to Learn
    Don't expect to fly like a pro in one or two weekends. If that were possible, you wouldn't see 4- and 8-way teams making 10 jumps a day every weekend all summer long.
    Tell your friends you're taking some time away from big-ways to work on smaller formations. Don't worry, they won't make fun of you. They'll probably respect you for trying to improve your flying skills. They might even be a little envious that you're doing something they might need but are too proud to try. Better yet, some of them might join you.
    Skydive in Your Head
    When you can't practice for real, go through skydives in your head. I do this a lot, and for good reason. I live in Ohio where it's tough to jump during the winter.
    So I do a lot of mental skydiving. I go over 4-way block sequences. I design skydives, then go through them in my mind.
    After a day of real jumping, I always review the day's jumps during the drive home. It's the same thing football and basketball teams do after a game -- they review the game film. Speaking of videos, they are wonderful training tools, but they cannot substitute for instant replay in your head.
    Which brings up another point -- always get a debrief after the jump. A good coach or organizer always does this. It helps you remember the skydive better, especially the parts that need work.
    Enjoy the Skydive!
    Last but not least, enjoy the skydive from exit to landing. Feel the formation leave the plane as one coordinated unit. Ride the exit and smile as you look for the first key. Then feel yourself glide, relaxed and controlled, to the next point.
    Keep that smile and relaxed control as you go from point to point. At breakoff, contain your enthusiasm until you clear and pull. Then hoot and holler if you want. It's your skydive!

    By elightle, in Disciplines,

    Competition Rules for Atmonauti Skydiving

    The competition will be conducted under the authority granted by the Atmonauti
    Committee of the Sports Skydivers Association. All participants accept these rules and
    regulations as binding by registering as a competitor for the competition.
    2.1 Atmonauti Body Position
    Atmonauti is the term given to the technique that intentionally utilises the torso (as
    an aerofoil) to generate lift, while ‘diving’ at an angle of between 30deg – 75deg to
    generate relative wind required for lift.
    Use of the torso to achieve lift allows freedom of limbs to achieve a range of
    handgrips and foot docks, essential for the ARW2 and SFIDA competition formats.
    2.2 Atmonauti Relative Work
    2.2.1 Sequences and Blocks, including transitions and inters, to include
    Frontmonauti, Backmonauti and Footmonauti positions. Frontmonauti: Head first into relative wind, torso to earth Backmonauti: Head first into relative wind, back to earth Footmonauti: Feet first into relative wind, back to earth
    2.3 SFIDA “Challenge”
    Neutral Navigator sets direction, angle and speed, Competitors compete side by
    side of the Navigator and aim to score highest points for that jump by virtue of
    preset docks and grips, to include transitions.
    2.4 Team
    An Atmonauti Relative Work Team will consist of two (2) competitors and a
    videographer. For SFIDA no team will exist and two (2) competitors will compete
    against each other navigated by an appointed qualified navigator. The
    Videographer will be independent from the competitors.
    Grip and docks
    2.4.1 Grip: a recognisable stationary contact of the hand or hands of one
    competitor on a specified part of the body or harness of the other
    competitor, executed in a controlled manner.
    2.4.2 Dock: A recognisable stationary contact of the foot or feet of the one
    competitor on a specified part of the body or harness of the other
    competitor, executed in a controlled manner.
    2.5 Heading
    The direction in which the “leading edge” of the performer faces. further defined in
    terms of Backmonauti and Frontmonauti positions
    2.6 Leading edge
    A specific body part of the performer (either head or feet) which is the first point of
    contact with the relative wind generated from the angle of attack
    2.6.1 Frontmonauti: Head first into relative wind, torso to earth
    2.6.2 Backmonauti: Head first into relative wind, back to earth
    2.6.3 Footmonauti: Feet first into relative wind, back to earth
    2.7 Axis
    2.7.1 3 axis – F (flight direction), P (Perpendicular to F) & H (Horizontal)
    2.8 Atmonauti position
    Objective is to achieve head-on relative wind (or a custom “tube”) at an angle of
    between 30deg – 75deg to the ground, with horizontal movement in relation to the
    ground, whilst searching for lift with the torso - freeing up the limbs to achieve hand
    grips and foot docks.
    2.9 Move
    A change in body position, and/or a rotation around one or more of the three body
    axes or a static pose.
    2.10 Navigator
    Neutral Navigator responsible for setting direction, angle and speed. No eye contact
    or assistance should be present.
    2.11 No Fly Zone Frontmonauti<.p>
    Behind, below, and not on head level during the approach (i.e. must be above,
    ahead and on head level).
    2.12 No Fly Zone Backmonauti
    Ahead, above, and not on head level during the approach (i.e. must be below,
    behind and on head level).
    2.13 Head level
    The level of the approaches - utilising the head as reference in relation to the angle
    of attack set by Navigator.
    2.14 Total Separation
    Is when all competitors show at one point in time that they have released all their
    grips and no part of their arms or body have contact with another body.
    2.15 Inter
    Is an intermediate requirement within a block sequence which must be performed
    as depicted in the dive pool.
    2.16 Sequence
    Is a series of random formations/free moves and block sequences which are
    designated to be performed on a specific jump.
    2.17 Scoring move/formation
    Is a move which is correctly completed and clearly presented either as a free move
    or within a block sequence as depicted in the dive pool, and which, apart from the
    first move after exit, must be preceded by a correctly completed and clearly
    presented total separation or inter, as appropriate
    2.18 Infringement
    2.18.1 An incorrect or incomplete formation which is followed within working time
    by either Total separation or, An inter, whether correct or not.
    2.18.2 A correctly completed formation preceded by an incorrect inter or incorrect
    total separation
    2.18.3 A formation, inter, or total separation not clearly presented
    2.18.4 In SFIDA, where one or both competitors cause instability to the navigator,
    adversely affecting the other competitor on the same jump.
    2.19 Omission
    2.19.1 A formation or inter missing from the draw sequence
    2.19.2 No clear intent to build the correct formation or inter is seen and another
    formation or inter is presented and there is an advantage to the team
    resulting from the substitution.
    2.20 Working Time
    Is the period of time during which teams are scored on a jump which starts the first
    moment and competitor (other than the videographer) separates from the aircraft,
    as determined by the Judges and terminates a number of seconds later as specified
    in chapter 3.
    2.21 NV
    Moves, inters, or total separations not visible on screen due to meteorological
    conditions, or factors relating to the videographer's freefall video equipment that
    cannot be controlled.
    2.22 Rounds
    Minimum 1 round to call the meet.
    2.23 Backmonauti
    The performer will be on heading flying on his back with his back towards the earth.
    2.24 Frontmonauti
    The performer will be on heading flying at the defined angle as per atmonauti
    definition with his back towards the sky.
    2.25 Footmonauti
    The performer will be on heading feet-first flying at the defined angle as per
    atmonauti definition with his back towards the ground.
    2.26 Formation
    A record attempt formation is considered as built when two or more competitors fly
    on heading with a predefined dock or grip held for minimum 3 seconds, and is the
    basis for the Atmonauti Linked National/World Records. A free move formation,
    however, is merely a recognisable stationary contact of the hand/hands or foot/feet
    – and does not require to be held for 3 seconds as per record attempts.
    3.1 The discipline is comprised of SFIDA and Atmonauti Relative Work.
    3.2 Number of rounds:
    a. SFIDA: a total of 4 competition rounds will be completed with a minimum of one
    round to be completed before a meet can be called.

    b. ARW: a total of 5 competition rounds will be completed with a minimum of one
    round to be completed before a meet can be called.
    3.3 All SFIDA competitions will be judged by an elimination process where the two
    highest scoring competitors in any given round will compete against each other in the following round and the second and third ranking competitors will compete
    against each other and so forth.
    3.4 In the case of a tie for a specific round, the previous total points are added to
    identify the highest total average per competitor.
    3.5 Should a tie persist, a one jump tie breaker will be performed with the highest
    scoring competitor moving to the next round.
    3.6 A tie breaker may also be required for placing 1st, 2nd, 3rd.
    4.1 The discipline will be comprised of the following events:
    4.1.1 ARW Events: Exit altitude is 11 000 feet AGL; working time is 40 seconds.
    4.1.2 SFIDA Events: Exit altitude is 11 000 feet AGL; working time is 40
    4.1.3 For meteorological reasons only, and with the consent of both the Event and Chief Judge, the Meet Director might change the exit altitude and/or working time and continue the competition. In this case the following
    conditions will apply: The working time will be:

    a. 20 or 40 seconds for the ARW Events

    b. 20 or 40 seconds for the SFIDA Events.

    The reduced working time must be used if the exit altitude is lowered (ref 4.1.1 and 4.1.2). The next round must commence if working time is changed and all competitors will be scored on
    the same working time for a specific round. The minimum exit altitude will be:

    a. 7 000 feet AGL for the ARW Events

    b. 7 000 feet AGL for the SFIDA Events.

    The maximum exit altitude will be 13 000 feet AGL for all
    4.2 Objective of the Event
    4.2.1 The objective of the event is for the a team (ARW) or single competitor
    (SFIDA) to complete as many scoring moves as possible within the given
    working time, while correctly following the sequence for the specific round.
    4.2.2 The accumulated total of all rounds completed is used to determine the
    placing of teams for ARW and the process of elimination as defined in chapter 3 is applied to determine the placing of individual SFIDA
    competitors. For ARW if two or more teams have equal scores the following order of procedures will be applied: For determining final standings:

    a. the highest score in any completed round;

    b. the highest score starting with the last completed
    round and continuing in reverse order, round by
    round until the tie is broken,

    c. the fastest time (measured to hundredths of a
    second) to the last common scoring move in the
    last completed round.

    d. one tie break round if possible (for the first three
    placings only).
    4.3 Performance Requirements
    4.3.1 Each round consists of a sequence of formations depicted in the dive pools
    of the appropriate annexes, as determined by the draw.

    4.3.2 It is the responsibility of the team or individual competitor to clearly present
    the start of working time, correct scoring moves, inters and total separation to the judges.
    4.3.3 Scoring moves need not to be perfectly symmetrical, but they must be
    performed in a controlled manner. Mirror images of moves and whole
    block sequences are not permitted.
    4.3.4 In sequences, total separation is required between block sequences,
    between free or random moves, and between block sequences and free
    4.3.5 Where degrees are shown (180, 270, 360, 540) this indicates the approximate degrees and direction of turn required to complete the inter as intended. The degrees shown are approximately that amount of the circumference of the subgroup's centre point to be presented to the centre point(s) of the other subgroup(s). For judging purposes, the approximate degrees and direction of turn of subgroups centrepoints will be assessed using only the two dimensional video evidence as presented.
    4.3.6 Contact or grips are allowed between subgroups during execution of the
    4.3.7 Where subgroups are shown, they must remain intact as a subgroup with
    only the depicted grips.
    4.3.8 Assisting handholds on other jumpers or their equipment within a
    subgroup/competitor or a scoring formation are permitted.
    5.1 Teams may consist of competitors of either or both sexes, except in the female
    event where (except for the videographer) all competitors must be female.
    5.2 The Draw
    5.2.1 The draw of the sequences will be supervised by the Chief Judge. Teams
    will be given not less than two hours knowledge of the results of the draw
    before the competition starts.
    5.2.2 Event Draws: All the «Block sequences» (numerically numbered) and the
    «Free moves» (alphabetically marked) shown in the appropriate annex will be singularly placed in one container. Individual withdrawal from the
    container, (without replacement) will determine the sequences to be jumped in each round. Each round will be drawn so as to consist of three
    or four scoring formations, whichever number is reached first. Alternatively this draw can be done on a Recognised electronic scoring/judging system as approved by the Meet Director and Chief Judge.
    5.2.3 Use of Dive Pool: Each block or formation will be drawn only once for the scheduled rounds of each competition. In the event that additional rounds are necessary, due to the tie-breaking jump-off, the dive pool for this round will consist of the blocks and free moves which were not drawn for the scheduled rounds. In the event that all of the remaining blocks and formations do not complete the tie breaking round, the draw will continue from an entire original dive pool in that event, excluding any blocks or formations which have already been drawn for that round.
    5.3 Competitors are not allowed to use a wind tunnel (freefall simulator) after the draw
    has been made.
    5.4 Jump Order
    5.4.1 Determined by a draw.
    5.4.2 Should conditions or availability not allow for Jump Order to be executed
    as per draw, Competitors ready and present shall be given first option to
    continue with the rounds.
    5.5 Video Transmission and Recording
    5.5.1 Each team shall provide the video evidence required to judge each round.
    Each freefall Videographer must use the video transmission system if
    provided by the Organiser.
    5.5.2 For the purpose of these rules, «freefall video equipment» shall consist of the complete video system(s) used to record the video evidence of the team’s freefall performance, including the camera(s), video media, tape recorder(s), and battery(ies). All freefall video equipment must be able to deliver a PAL digital signal through an IEEE 1395 compatible connection (Firewire) or composite video compatible connection.
    5.5.3 As soon as possible after each jump is completed, the freefall videographer must deliver the freefall video equipment (including the tape(s) used to record that jump) for dubbing at the designated dubbing station.
    5.5.4 Only one video recording will be dubbed and judged. Secondary video recordings may only be used in NV situations.
    5.5.5 The dubbing station will be as close to the landing area as possible.
    5.5.6 A Video Controller will be appointed by the Chief Judge prior to the start of the Judges’ Conference. The Video Controller may inspect a team’s freefall video equipment to verify that it meets the performance requirements as determined by him/her. Inspections may be made at any time during the competition which do not interfere with a team’s performance, as determined by the Event Judge. If any freefall video equipment does not meet the performance requirements as determined by the Video Controller, this equipment will be deemed to be unusable for the competition.
    5.5.7 A Video Review Panel will be established prior to the start of the official training jumps, consisting of the Chief Judge, the President of the Jury, and the Chairman, or acting Chairman, of the Atmonauti SSA Committee.
    Decisions rendered by the Video Review Panel shall be final and shall not be subject to protest or review by the Jury.
    5.5.8 If the Video Review Panel determines that the freefall video equipment has been deliberately tampered with, the team will receive no points for all competition rounds involved with this tampering.
    5.6 Exit Procedure
    5.6.1 Exit first (prior to FS, AE, Wingsuiting on the same jump run) at altitude.
    There are no limitations on the exit other than those imposed by the JM for
    safety reasons.
    5.6.2 The exit will be controlled by the Navigator in SFIDA and Team Principle in ARW2. Exit commands will be made using an appropriate signal system, and should be discussed prior to boarding with the pilot.
    5.6.3 Atmo groups will be required to fly minimum 45 degrees off jump run in order to create horizontal separation to freefall groups exiting after atmonauti group.
    5.7 Scoring
    5.7.1 A team will score one point for each scoring move performed in the sequence within the allotted Working Time of each round. Teams may continue scoring by continually repeating the sequence.
    5.7.2 For each omission two points will be deducted. If both the inter and the second move in a block sequence are omitted, this will be considered as only one omission.
    5.7.3 If an infringement in the scoring move of a block sequence is carried into the inter (ref. 2.8), this will be considered as one infringement only, provided that the intent of the inter requirements for the next formation is clearly presented and no other infringement occurs in the inter.
    5.7.4 The minimum score for any round is zero points, except where zero points have been awarded and penalty/ies imposed.
    5.8 Rejumps
    5.8.1 In a NV situation, the video evidence will be considered insufficient for judging purposes, and the Video Review Panel will assess the conditions and circumstances surrounding that occurrence. In this case a rejump will be given unless the Video Review Panel determines that there has been an intentional abuse of the rules by the team, in which case no rejump will
    be granted and the team’s score for that jump will be zero.
    5.8.2 Contact or other means of interference between competitors in a team and/or their Videographer shall not be grounds for the team to request a rejump with regards to ARW. In the case of the SFIDA category adverse whether conditions such as bad visibility (in cloud), any contact or other means of interference between the navigator and competitiors and/or between the Videographer shall be grounds for the individual competitors
    to request a rejump – granted at the sole discretion of the Atmonauti Event Judge.
    5.8.3 Adverse weather conditions during a jump are no grounds for protest. However, a rejump may be granted due to adverse weather conditions, at
    the discretion of the Chief Judge.
    5.8.4 Problems with a competitor’s equipment (excluding freefall video
    equipment) shall not be grounds for the team to request a rejump.
    5.9 Training Jumps
    5.9.1 Each team in each event will be given the option of one official training jump before the draw is made.
    5.9.2 The aircraft type and configuration, plus the judging and scoring systems to
    be used in the competition will be used for the official training jump.
    5.9.3 Two sequences will be created by the Chief Judge. Only teams performing
    one of these sequences will receive an evaluation and posted score.

    6. JUDGING
    6.1 The official training jump and competition jumps will be judged as the Videographer
    provides the video evidence. The Chief Judge may modify this procedure with the
    consent of the FAI Controller.
    6.2 The judging will, as far as practical circumstances allow (landings out, rejumps etc),
    be judged in the reverse order of placing.
    6.3 Three Judges must evaluate each team’s performance.
    6.4 The Judges will watch the video evidence of each jump to a maximum of three times at normal speed. If, after the viewings are completed, and within fifteen seconds of the knowledge of the result, the Chief Judge, Event Judge or any Judge on the panel considers that an absolutely incorrect assessment has occurred, the Chief Judge or Event Judge will direct that only that part(s) of the jump in question be reviewed. If the review results in a unanimous decision by the Judges on the part(s) of the performance in question, the score for the jump will be adjusted accordingly. Only one review is permitted for each jump.
    6.5 The Judges will use the electronic scoring system to record their evaluation of the performance. At the end of working time, freeze frame will be applied on each viewing, based on the timing taken from the first viewing only. The Judges may correct their evaluation record after the jump has been judged. Corrections to the
    evaluation record can only be made before the Chief Judge signs the score sheet. All individual Judge’s evaluation will be published.
    6.6 A majority of Judges must agree in the evaluation in order to;

    • credit the scoring move, or

    • assign an omission, or

    • determine an NV situation.

    6.7 The chronometer will be operated by the Judges or by a person(s) appointed by the
    Chief Judge, and will be started as determined in 2.13. If Judges cannot determine
    the start of the working time, the following procedure will be followed. Working time
    will start as the videographer separates from the aircraft and a penalty equal to 20%
    (rounded down) of the score for that jump will be deducted from the score for that

    7.1 Title of the Competition: Atmonauti National/World/Continental Championships
    7.2 Aims of Atmonauti National/World/Continental Championships
    7.2.1 To determine National/World/Continental Champions of Atmonauti in the:

    • ARW (Atmo Relative Work),

    • SFIDA “Challenge”

    7.2.2 and

    • To determine the world standings of the competing teams,

    • To establish Atmonauti formation/distance/other world records,

    • To promote and develop Atmonauti,

    • To present a visually attractive image of the competition jumps and
    standings (scores) for competitors, spectators and media,

    • To exchange ideas, experience, knowledge and information, and
    strengthen friendly relations between the sport parachutists, judges, and
    support personnel of all nations,

    • To improve judging methods and practices.
    7.3 Composition of Delegations:
    7.3.1 Each delegation may be comprised of:

    • One (1) Head of Delegation,

    • One (1) Team Manager,

    • Freefall videographers as.7.3.4 and
    7.3.2 At a World/Continental Championship:

    • Two (2) ARW2 teams consisting of up to:
    Six (6) ARW2 Competitors

    • One (1) female ARW2 team consisting of up to:
    Three (3) female ARW2 Competitors

    • SFIDA contestants consisting of up to:
    Three (3) Individual Competitors
    7.3.3 At a World Cup:

    • Any number of teams per event (composed as for a World
    Championship) to be decided by the Organiser and announced in the
    7.3.4 Videographers must be entered for each team as part of the delegation and must be a member of the Delegation’s NAC. A Videographer may be replaced at any time during the competition, (with the agreement of the FAI Controller). The evaluation process for the video evidence will be the same for any Videographer. Videographers may be one of the following:

    a. One person in addition to the team composition in 7.3.2. This competitor
    is to be considered as a team member for the purposes of awards and

    b. Any other person (ref 7.3.6). This Videographer is eligible to receive
    awards and medals. This Videographer may jump as a ‘pool’ Videographer and is subject to the same regulations as other competitors on the team.
    7.3.5 If any ARW team consists of competitors from the SFIDA, they should be
    listed separately on the entry form.
    7.3.6 Any ARW competitor can only enter in one ARW team as ‘performer’ but may enter as a ‘pool’ Videographer. A competitor in the ARW event cannot also enter in the Female ARW event.
    7.4 Program of Events for SFIDA:
    7.4.1 The World Championships is comprised of:

    • Up to 8 rounds considered as selection rounds, and

    • Final rounds, consisting of 4 quarter finals, two semi finals, one runners
    up and one finals round.
    7.4.2 Time must be reserved before the end of competition to allow for the
    completion of the semi-final, final and runners up round. The quarter-final rounds will consist of the individuals with the 8
    highest scores from the selection rounds. The semi final rounds will consist of the individuals with the 4
    highest scores from the quarter-finals. The finals round will consist of the individuals with the 2 highest
    scores from the semi final rounds. The runners up round will consist of the lowest scores of each
    of the 2 semi finals rounds.
    7.4.3 A selection round left incomplete must be completed as soon as possible,
    but after the round in progress has been completed.
    7.4.4 If all the selection rounds are not completed at the starting time of the
    quarter-finals, the round in progress will become the semi final or final
    round as appropriate. Where this is the semi final, the next drawn round
    will be used for the final round. The following procedures will apply
    i) The round in progress will be completed if ten or less (in the case of
    semi finals) or six or less (in the case of finals) teams remain to jump.
    All scores for this round will count.
    ii) The round in progress will be performed by only the ten (in the case of
    semi finals) or six (in the case of finals) highest placed teams if more
    than ten (in the case of semi finals) or six (in the case of finals) teams
    remain to jump. The scores of any other teams in this round will be
    7.4.5 The competition will be organised during a maximum time frame of 5 competition days. Exceptions may be made where a bid is received for
    multiple FCE competitions at one time.
    7.5 Medals and Diplomas are awarded as follows:

    • All team members (ARW) and individuals (SFIDA) in the events will be awarded
    medals if placed First, Second or Third.

    • Certificates are awarded to all competitors that are placed First to Tenth.

    8.1 Coding in the Dive Pool annexes is as follows:
    8.1.1 Indicates Move by the competitor:
    See image 1 top right.
    8.1.2 Indicates transition on “defined’ axis by competitor in either direction:
    See image 2 top right.
    8.2 Visualisation for dock/grip positions, (Ref: 2.5)
    See image 3 top right.

    See image 4 top right.

    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Annexure A – ARW2 Intermediate

    Both competitors participate exclusively in the orientation of Frontmonaut.
    Make-up of the 5 manches:
    Manche 1 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 2 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 3 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]

    Manche 4 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 5 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]
    For every manches there will be a draw of the individual moves for the respective and eventual sequence.
    Moves for the Category Intermediate

    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Annexure B – ARW2 Advanced

    Both competitors participate exclusively in the orientation of "Frontmonaut" and "Backmonaut".
    Make-up of the 5 manches:
    Manche 1 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 2 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]

    Manche 3 : 3 [Free] + 2 [Block]

    Manche 4 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 5 : 3 [Free] + 1 [Block]
    For every manches there will be a draw of the individual moves for the respective and eventual sequence.
    Moves for the category Advanced

    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Advice for Starting Wingsuit BASE jumping

    Visit BASEjumper.com for more BASE jumping information, articles, photos, videos and discussions

    Section 1: Introduction
    Section 2: Before even considering doing a wingsuit BASE jump
    Section 3: So you still want to wingsuit BASE
    Section 4: You now have some wingsuit BASE experience, what’s next?
    Section 5: Conclusion
    Appendix A: Specific wingsuit drills to practice from the plane
    Appendix B: Relevant entries from “the list”
    Appendix C: Some considerations for wingsuit site selection

    Download Full Article in PDF

    1. Introduction:
    We have all seen the amazing videos of people like Robert, Yuri and Loic flying their wingsuits. It is natural to want to follow in their slipstreams but let us make sure we do so safely and with adequate preparation.
    This document is intended as an initial information source for BASE jumpers interested in starting wingsuit BASE.
    This document is not an instruction manual. It does not contain rules, only advice.
    Wingsuit BASE is more dangerous than normal BASE jumping if the jumper does not conduct adequate preparation.
    If you choose to pursue wingsuit BASE you are strongly recommended to seek instruction from an experienced wingsuit BASE jumper. There is no substitute for one to one coaching.
    A wingsuit allows for incredible freefall delays and horizontal distances to be achieved, almost eliminating the chance of striking the object you jumped off, the number one cause of BASE jumping fatalities.
    But jumping a wingsuit also has some serious drawbacks:
    The wingsuit restricts your physical movement making exits harder to perform i.e. difficult to climb down to the exit point, easier to go unstable and then harder to recover.

    The wingsuit complicates deployment and prevents you from controlling your canopy immediately after opening.

    The wingsuit jumper must carefully assess the terrain he intends to fly over as the eventual opening point and landing area will be different than for a normal BASE jump and will also depend on flight performance.

    Experienced BASE jumpers who use ground rush as an altitude indicator must exercise caution during their initial jumps. The low fall rate and high horizontal speeds can fool the jumper that they are higher than they actually are. The wingsuit ground rush for a minimal canopy ride is a lot less intense than for normal freefall.

    The wingsuit jumper must also pay attention to his altitude when flying down a talus or over sloping terrain. The jumper often focuses on the airspace they are flying towards, giving the illusion they have lots of altitude available (e.g. looking at the valley floor in front of them).

    In this situation the jumper must remember that the critical altitude is the immediate vertical elevation they have over the talus or slope. The wingsuit jumper must always ensure sufficient altitude for a safe deployment - bear in mind that as soon as the PC is released the wingsuit jumper will stop flying and drop vertically approx. 200’+ as the canopy deploys.

    Experienced wingsuit BASE jumpers may attempt to make jumps that would be otherwise impossible without a wingsuit. The jumper must be absolutely sure of his own capabilities and those of his equipment when undertaking jumps that allow little margin for error.

    2. Before even considering doing a wingsuit BASE jump you should be:
    An intermediate BASE jumper:
    With minimum 50 BASE jumps (but more jumps are strongly recommended!)
    Cool under pressure, very comfortable in the BASE environment
    Always performing solid exits, also when exiting with arms by your side
    Have good sub & terminal tracking skills
    Have excellent canopy flying skills and landing accuracy
    Have consistent record of stable deployments and on-heading openings An intermediate wingsuit skydiver:
    With minimum 50 wingsuit skydives (but more jumps are strongly recommended!)
    Who wears a wingsuit as if it were pyjamas, not feeling physically restricted by the fabric
    Always able to find the PC quickly and cleanly, with good on heading openings
    Well practiced at recovering from instability
    Able to unzip arm wings instantly after deployment - like 2nd nature
    Familiar using arm and leg cutaways in freefall and under canopy immediately after opening
    Able to fly the suit comfortably without “potato chipping” achieving reasonable fall rate and forward speed
    Ideally have performed some wingsuit balloon jumps to simulate the exit & sub terminal flight
    See Appendix B for specific flight drills to practice whilst jumping the wingsuit from the plane. A person who has read all the incident reports, analysed the contributing factors and accepted that wingsuit / BASE jumping is worth the risk of serious injury & death.

    3. So you still want to wingsuit BASE? Let’s talk about specific preparation:

    First thing, it is strongly recommended to start wingsuit BASE using a low performance wingsuit i.e. Birdman Classic, GTi or similar. Once you have 10+ good wingsuit BASE jumps you could consider jumping with a higher performance suit.
    The following items are strongly recommended:
    A 1 or 2 pin BASE container for wingsuit BASE. The high speed airflow over the container and high deployment angle excludes the use of a Velcro rig.
    A normal terminal pack job i.e. symmetrical, mesh slider packed “up” (large or fine mesh depending on personal preference).
    ZP pilot chutes, the size depends on your canopy, between 34” – 38”. The PC should NOT have a hackey handle (or heavy handle). With a hackey PC handle there is the possibility of the bridle wrapping around the base of the handle. A heavy PC handle could contribute to PC hesitation. The following items are recommended:
    A container with “dynamic corners” or open corners.
    A suitable helmet, goggles and low profile protective pads.
    Back to the dropzone:

    Perform 20 hop-n-pops using your low performance wingsuit and a sensibly sized 7 cell main, or even better your BASE canopy in a skydiving rig. (The 20 jumps can count towards the 50)

    Work your deployment altitude gradually down to USPA minimum of 2200’, open by 2000’
    (Discuss this with your CCI / DZO first, some dropzones may enforce a higher pull altitude)

    If you have any instability, deployment or opening problems go back to full altitude jumps until they are rectified, use a BMI if necessary. During these 20 hop-n-pops think about your emergency drills for the following situations, bearing in mind the reduced altitude and time under canopy:
    Unstable exit
    Handle inside of pouch /BOC
    Hard pull
    Floating handle
    PC in tow
    Premature deployment
    Horseshoe malfunction
    Line twists
    Line over
    Water landing
    Jammed zip
    Now to a far away land:
    It is strongly recommended to go to one of the following well known “high” locations for your first wingsuit BASE jumps. Become familiar with the object performing normal BASE jumps, getting to know landing areas and outs, obstacles, rock drop, winds, talus / ledges etc.


    Carl’s Huge wall in Northern Norway:
    Good vertical rock drop

    Huge LZ

    Good access

    Not many sheep and it rains a lot

    Norwegian Fjord in Southern Norway:
    Good vertical rock drop

    Medium sized LZ

    Good access

    Very expensive beer

    Italian Terminal wall:
    OK vertical rock drop

    Small LZ (assume Heli LZ)

    Good access

    Wind / turbulence can be a problem

    Swiss Fungus:
    Good vertical rock drop

    Large landing area

    Access is difficult, requiring high fitness level and basic climbing skills

    Once you are comfortable with the site, pick a day when you are feeling 100% and the weather conditions are perfect to make your first wingsuit BASE jump.
    Advice for your first wingsuit BASE jump. What to focus on?

    Being current! Make sure you get current at wingsuit skydiving and BASE jumping in the weeks running up to your first jump.

    Pack yourself a nice terminal opening, attach the wingsuit correctly with the PC packed in the BOC with the correct tension (not too loose or too tight). Perform a full gear check before the hike, avoid “exit gear fear” syndrome, as you will already be under pressure.

    Exit in a nice head high position, student style, with you arm wings open and your leg wing closed, your arm wings will help you balance and remain head high. 1-2 sec after exit slowly extend your leg wing and start to trim the suit as you feel the air speed picking up. Premature exposure of the leg wing can cause you to go head low – be warned! Better to be head high.

    If you should go head low, stay calm! Bring your head up and if the object allows it, try to stay parallel with the surface and build up some speed to allow you to pull up out of the dive more easily. You may wish to consider this possibility when selecting the site of your first few wingsuit jumps.

    After you have extended the leg wing focus on flying the suit efficiently away from the object pulling nice and high – don’t rush, take time to reach, grip and throw the PC. The PC throw should be vigorous to clear the burble the suit makes behind you. Remember to keep your body symmetrical at all times during deployment to help maintain on heading performance.

    It is recommended to learn to deploy from full flight as the BASE environment rarely allows enough altitude to collapse your wings and fall vertically prior to deploying. This also has the advantage of keeping the airflow over your body fast & clean reducing the chance of pilot chute hesitation. Deploying from full flight implies keeping your leg wing inflated and only collapsing your arm wings for the moment required to locate the PC. As your canopy reaches line stretch it is better to close your leg wing as it can catch air causing your body to twist. Your first 5 - 10 jumps should focus on a stable exit, flight and deployment, once you have these survival skills you can start to think about flight time and distance.

    4. You now have some wingsuit BASE experience, what’s next?
    Once you have become a competent wingsuit BASE jumper you could consider:
    Jumping a higher performance suit
    Jumping from lower objects, for example the higher exit points in the legal Swiss valley.
    Jumping camera
    Performing 2 ways +
    Opening up new objects
    Your imagination is the limit! Make sure there is video! Note:
    Trying to land any of the current wingsuit designs is only recommended for the terminally ill.
    You want to jump a higher performance wingsuit:
    So you have done approx. 10+ good wingsuit BASE jumps with a low performance suit and you now intend to jump a higher performance suit.
    Assuming you have trouble free experience flying the higher performance suit from the plane you can go ahead and use it for BASE.
    Treat your first wingsuit BASE jump using the higher performance wingsuit the same as your first wingsuit BASE jump.
    You want to jump a wingsuit that has a leg pouch PC:
    If you intend to use the leg pouch PC (e.g. S3 or Phoenix Fly wingsuit) - it is strongly recommended to perform the following ground and skydiving preparation.
    Prior to jumping the leg pouch PC perform a couple of thousand practice pulls on the ground. Be able to find the handle, regardless of body position with your eyes closed. Do 300 practice pulls a night for a week or so, simulating full flight then deployment.
    When packing the PC into the leg pouch assure that the Birdman or Phoenix Fly guide lines are followed. The PC should not be too loose or too tight. It is strongly recommended to bar tack the Velcro sleeve to the bridle - check that you leave enough free bridle between the bar tack and pin to ensure the Velcro is completely peeled before any tension is applied to the pin. Failure to do so can cause PC hesitation.
    Don’t mate the male-female Velcro over each other 100% when the suit is brand new, let the them overlap 50% to the side for the first few dozen jumps until the Velcro is slightly worn. For more details on assembling and packing the leg pouch PC system please refer to http://www.interone.net/learn/basepc.html.
    Perform at least 10 skydives with the system, using a wingsuit or BASE bridle, start with normal altitude jumps, performing dummy pulls in flight and then pulling high to give yourself extra time. Assuming you have no opening problems or issues finding the PC handle quickly & easily you can work down to lower altitude deployments.
    Treat your first wingsuit BASE jump using the leg pouch the same as your first wingsuit BASE jump.

    5. Conclusion
    Following these guidelines does not make wingsuit BASE jumping a safe activity.
    Wingsuit BASE is still a relatively new discipline. It requires jumpers to develop new skills, new muscle memory, new judgement and new understanding. Respect it.
    This document is by no means the final word on wingsuit BASE jumping, always seek advice and guidance from other experienced wingsuit jumpers and share what you discover.
    By taking part in this activity you are in effect a “test jumper”, we all still have a lot to learn….
    Let’s be careful out there
    Long Flights
    James Boole

    Craig Poxon

    Robert Pecnik

    Simon Brentford

    Gray Fowler

    Yuri Kuznetsov

    Steve Schieberl

    Per Eriksson
    The authors of this document accept no responsibility, financially or otherwise for any loss, serious injury or death that occurs as a result of any persons following the advice contained within this document.
    BASE jumping and wingsuit BASE jumping are extremely dangerous activities carrying risk of serious injury or death. Performing the activities described in this document with out becoming an expert skydiver and completing dedicated BASE / wingsuit training will likely result in a demonstration of natural selection.

    Appendix A
    Specific wingsuit drills to perform whilst jumping from the plane:
    Barrel rolls
    Front flips
    Back flying
    Flying and pulling with left arm wing closed (i.e. to simulate blown wing)
    Pulling out of steep dives quickly (i.e. bad exit)
    Dropping knees
    Turning with minimal altitude loss
    Carving turns
    Arching, de-arching
    Deploying from full flight
    Flying with one bootie off
    Turning only with legs
    Turning only with arms

    Appendix B – Wingsuit fatalities

    #67 Kirill Kiselev, September, 2002 
    Age: 27, from Ekaterininburg, Russia.

    Cliff Jump (Wing Suit)

    Vikesaxa (Eiksdalen Valley) Norway
    I received this report from a close friend of Kirill who witnessed or heard most of the jump. Kirill has 500 skydives with 20 being with a wing suit, and 30 BASE jumps, with 2 being with a wing suit. This fatality began with an inadvertent low pull from a man who didn't do low pulls. His friend believes Kirill encountered a stability problem late in the flight. The friend, along with authorities, inspected Kirill's body and gear at the hospital. Kirill had opened his canopy, the slider is at the links. Both toggles are still stowed. The wing zippers are closed and the swoop cords are still over his fingers. The wing fabric between his legs is torn. His broken neck and one broken leg suggest opening and impact occurred at about the same time. The report intimates failure of the wingsuit material between Kirill's legs caused a stability problem at pull time. By the time Kirill stopped trying to overcome the situation and deploy, it is too late. Kirill is the first BASE jumper to die flying a wingsuit on a BASE jump.
    #68 Rob Tompkins, September 12, 2002 
    Lysbotn, Norway

    Cliff Jump (Wing Suit)

    This is the second wing suit BASE fatality. Rob has 247 BASE jumps with 92 being with a wing suit on the day he died. A report states: "For the last month, Rob had his eye on a particular jump between launch points 4 and 5. We looked at it, doing rock jumps and basically studying the jump. There are two launch points next to this particular jump, one with a 7-second drop and the other with an 8-second drop. Rob jumped the 7-second launch point 10 times always doing a reverse gainer. The place he's looking at now, he dubbed the, "RT Hjørner," and has a rock drop time of 5-seconds. We analyzed this site on video and with other wing suit  pilots. In my opinion, the jump is not achievable - and I repeated this to Rob. Other wing suit pilots said the same thing. Rob is convinced he can do it including a reverse gainer. After 7 seconds of freefall Rob impacted the talus ledge. He never tried to deploy his pilot chute, knowing that this would not save him. Rob believed he could out fly the ledge right up until he died. Rob is remembered as a good man, full of respect, and kind to everyone."
    #69 Lukas Knutsson, October 11, 2002

      Cliff Jump (Wing Suit)

    Engelberg, Switzerland (Cold Steel)
    Lukas has a good launch and good flight with his wingsuit and pulled high over the landing area. This is the third BASE wing suit fatality. Despite a powerful pull the pilot chute ended up in the turbulence behind him. In the burble the pilot chute spun around very fast. Lukas notices the deployment is hesitating and collapsed his wings and rolled to one side to clear the pilot chute. At this point the pilot chute achieved bridle stretch but the bridle had entangled with the pilot chute so badly the pilot chute is almost totally collapsed. Lukas did rollover to the other side and struggled hard to get the canopy out of the container. However, the container remained closed to impact. Lukas is a very experienced long time BASE jumper (this site is now called "Cold Steel" in his honour) and he will be missed by the entire BASE community.
    #75 Gabi Dematte, August 13, 2003 
    Cliff Jump (Wing Suit)

    Gasterntal, Switzerland
    Cliff Strike & Impact
    The following report is from one of Gabi's many friends. "Gabi went to jump alone, like she did very often. Getting away from the crowds in Lauterbrunnen she went to another valley known by only a very few jumpers. She couldn't out fly a ledge with her wings. Which is awkward, because she kicked ass with those wings. She did not attempt to pull. Gabi was a very good jumper, and a super nice person. I was lucky to get to know her and I will treasure her contribution to my existence. For me, it was nice to jump with another woman. It was special and it did not last long enough. Lauterbrunnen valley is empty and quiet now." Gabi is the fourth BASE wing suit fatality."
    #80 Jeff Barker, July 5, 2004
    Age: 32

    Cliff Jump

    Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest
    Jeff is jumping with a wingsuit and he failed to clear a outcropping in freefall.
    #81 Duane Thomas, August 21, 2004 
    Age: 35

    Cliff Jump

    Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland
    Duane, a Kiwi with a quick smile, is a well known and experienced BASE jumper. The following is from an eye witness. "The jump is witnessed by two British jumpers and two Swiss jumpers. One Brit watching, and videoing, from the exit point, the other three watching from the LZ. This is Duane's first wingsuit BASE jump, and his first jump ever with a leg mounted pilot chute pouch. Prior to this jump Duane prepared by making 50 aircraft and 2 hot air balloon wingsuit skydives. Duane had a good exit and a good flight. Everybody saw him reach for and locate the pilot chute at what the witnesses said is a reasonable altitude. He then kept his hand there and continued in freefall. The speculation is the lack of normal ground rush (like the type he is used to when not wearing a wingsuit) might have fooled him. The Swiss are yelling at him to pull and he finally did so, at what they said is about 30-feet above the ground. The canopy lifted out of the pack tray but is no where near line stretch when he impacted in a full flight position. According to the Swiss there is no fumbling around, or looking for the pilot chute handle - all the witnesses agree on this. He reached and located the pilot chute, but just took to long to deploy it. A hard pull cannot be fully discounted at this time, but all the witnesses believe he just waited too long." This is the sixth BASE wingsuit fatality since the first one occurred in September of 2002.
    Reproduced with the kind permission of Nick Di Giovanni #194. The complete list can be viewed at:
    http://www.basefatalities.info or http://hometown.aol.com/base194/myhomepage/base_fatality_list
    Other wingsuit incidents:
    Patrick de Gayardon

    Geoff Peggs or

    Dwain Weston

    Appendix C – Wingsuit site selection
    You want to open up a new object jumping a wingsuit:
    So you have become a very competent wingsuit BASE jumper and you intend to open up an object that has never been jumped with wingsuit. Here are some factors to bear in mind.
    Make sure the vertical rock drop gives you enough altitude to launch the suit and get flying with a little extra in case you have a poor exit.

    The altitude profile of the object will also affect your decision. Use tools like rock drop, laser range finder and GPS to accurately measure the object.

    When estimating the horizontal distance that can be achieved from an object remember to factor in the altitude loss from exit and deployment.

    You may also wish to consider the conditions at the exit point and whether it is practical to put on the wingsuit there.

    Booties offer little traction when wet or muddy, be careful that you have good ground to stand on for your exit

    A wingsuit takes several seconds to start generating significant lift and forward speed. Therefore jumping a wingsuit from below 1500’ offers very little benefit in terms of freefall time and object separation (but it adds some colour to the jump).

    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Annexure C – ARW2 Super Advanced

    Both competitors participate exclusively in the orientation of 'Fronmonaut" and "Backmonaut".
    Make-up of the 5 manches:
    Manche 1 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 2 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]

    Manche 3 : 1 [Free] + 2 [Block]

    Manche 4 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 5 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]
    For every manches there will be a draw of the individual moves for the respective and eventual sequence.

    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Diving and Tracking Safety on Large Formation Skydives

    Image by Brian Buckland By Ed Lightle
    This is the first of two articles geared toward safety on big-way formation skydives. This article deals mostly with the freefall part of the skydive whereas the second article “Canopy Safety on Large Formation Skydives” deals mostly with safety under canopy. To get the most benefit, it is recommended that you read both articles.
    In Formation Skydiving, hundreds of big-ways are completed every year without incident. This is a testament to both the skill level of today’s formation skydivers and the screening process utilized by big-way organizers. To qualify for most big-way events, a participant must obtain the recommendation of a big-way plane captain or organizer and must have recently participated in a big-way camp or big-way event.
    Organizers take safety seriously. A safety violation on a big-way, whether at a training camp or on a big-way attempt, will get a jumper benched when an honest learning mistake might not.
    Diving and tracking on big-ways are special areas of concern. With longer diving and tracking times and more jumpers in the air, big-ways naturally increase the risk of a freefall collision. But this risk can be eliminated if jumpers use good common sense and think safety on each and every jump. Here are some tips that can help.
    Watch Jumpers Ahead of You While Diving
    As soon as a diver leaves the plane and gets squared away, he must identify the base and the jumpers who will be docking ahead of him in the formation. He must keep them in sight while he dives, stops, sets up and moves in to dock. He should constantly scan the sky in front of him, starting from the base and extending all the way out to the person he will be docking on. He should keep an eye out for camera flyers as well.
    Because several divers are heading to the same sector of the formation, each diver must follow a straight line from the plane to the area outside the formation where he wants to be stopped and ready to follow jumpers ahead of him into his slot.
    A jumper should never dive directly behind another diver in case the leading diver comes out of his dive early. The trailing diver should always stay a few feet off to the side.
    Don’t Zigzag
    If a diver flares (comes out of his dive) early, he should not zigzag from side to side to bleed off altitude. If he does, he risks being hit by jumpers who are diving behind him. To bleed off altitude at this point, he should either get back into his dive (if he has a lot of distance to make up) or assume a fast fall position while keeping jumpers ahead of him in view.
    Get to the Red Zone on Time
    Another area of concern is getting down to the red zone in time. (The red zone is the area around and outside the formation where jumpers have stopped their dives and are lined up and moving straight ahead and down into their slots. From a camera flyer’s perspective, jumpers in the red zone look as if they are lined up in various seats in an imaginary football stadium as them move down to their slots on the field.)
    A jumper who arrives late in the red zone more than likely has to maneuver around jumpers who are already closing on their slots. He also prevents later divers from getting to their slots. All of this increases the chance of a collision.
    A more serious situation can occur when a jumper arrives so late that the first wave of jumpers is breaking off. This is not serious if he immediately turns and tracks away with this first wave. If he doesn’t, he risks a head-on collision.
    Break Off with Your Group
    To maximize horizontal separation and avoid congestion, jumpers on big-ways break off in “waves”. Imagine how congested it would be if everybody on a 100-way turned and tracked at the same time! On a 100-way, for example, the outer wave might break off around 7000 feet, the next wave around 6000 feet, the next wave at 5000 and so on until only the base group is left. Obviously, the outer wave tracks the furthest horizontal distance and the base tracks the shortest. Again, a jumper who doesn’t arrive in the red zone until break off should turn and track with the outer wave.
    Track with Your Group
    When their wave breaks off, jumpers should track away in groups. A group can consist of a few jumpers from one whacker and a few from an adjacent whacker with one jumper in the center of the group designated the tracking leader. At breakoff, jumpers from each whacker turn in the direction of the tracking leader, track side by side for a few seconds, then fan out away from the center.
    A jumper who goes low should move off to the side, assume a slow fall rate, and try to get above the formation until the outer wave breaks off, at which time he should turn and track away with them.
    Flat Track, Don’t “Dive” Track
    A jumper should stay level with other trackers in his group, and everybody should “flat track” to conserve altitude and maximize horizontal separation. “Dive” tracking (very steep tracking) is not acceptable behavior on a big-way,” says Kate Cooper-Jensen, big-way organizer and multiple world record holder, adding, “A jumper can almost stop dive tracking simply by choosing to alter his body position during the turn away from the formation.”
    To initiate a flat track, a jumper assumes a slow fall position while turning away from the formation, essentially de-arching as he turns. This prevents him from immediately dropping into a dive track below other jumpers in his group. Keeping his hips elevated as he finishes his turn, the jumper then locks his knees, points his toes, and points his head toward the horizon. His arms are initially extended 45 degrees away from his sides and his feet shoulder-width apart. As he picks up speed, he rolls his shoulders forward, and brings his arms closer to his sides and his feet closer together. He should feel the lift as he picks up speed.
    Open at the Same Altitude as Your Group
    As an additional safety measure, opening altitudes of the various waves are staggered to maximize separation and make it easier for jumpers to account for open canopies around them. According to one theory, groups in the middle wave open at the highest altitudes while the outside and base groups open at the lowest. The result is a curve of open canopies, starting lowest at the base, curving up in the middle then down again on the outsides.
    A successful big-way is a team effort with the goal of building a completed formation the safest way possible. Diving and tracking on a big-way is like driving on the highway. A safe driver knows more than just how to push the accelerator and go fast. He maintains a safe distance from the driver in front, he doesn’t switch lanes without looking, and he doesn’t cut in front of other drivers just to beat them to the exit. He gets to where he needs to be in plenty of time without causing an accident. So does a safe big-way formation skydiver.

    By admin, in Disciplines,