canopy size measurements

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OK, for Chris.... I'll start the new thread.... canopy size measurement fact vs reality vs marketing.... who's right who's not, or is there any one way to measure.... It appears that PIA has some definitions. who's following them?
from chris:
Let me ask one question...
How is canopy size measured? (area, square footage...)
I look forward to all replies.

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PIA defines canopy chord from the trailing edge to the forward-most point on the upper leading edge. PIA measures span across the top skin about 6 " back from the leading edge. It is easy to measure rectangular canopies with PIA methods. Unfortunately, most modern canopies are tapered and few manufacturers still use PIA methods. To the best of my knowledge, only Para-Flite (who wrote the standard), Parachutes de France and PISA use PIA measuring methods.
Every other manufacturer "re-invents to wheel" to devise new measuring methods. For example: Performance Designs quotes "projected area" which works out very close to the size of the bottom skin. This results in PD canopies packing and flying 5% to 15% "bigger" than their published numbers. In January 2001, Icarus changed to PD's measuring method.
On the other hand, I suspect that Precision measures fabric before it is sewn, resulting in canopies that are about 5% smaller than Precision's numbers.
Hint, ignore most numbers published by canopy manufacturers. I only trust numbers published by Sandy Reid of Rigging Innovations. Sandy runs one of the few (maybe the only) official PIA canopy measuring chambers because he has taken it in the shorts too many times when canopies don't fit into containers that he has designed. Sandy now takes any number published by any canopy manufacturer with a grain of salt.

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