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Disciplines

    BASE jumping injuries and treatment in the field

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    You just landed after throwing a double gainer from a cliff in Moab. Adrenaline surges through your system as you think of the amazing visuals you just saw. As you gather up your canopy, you pause to watch the next jumper exit. After a short delay, he tosses his pilot chute and the canopy deploys offheading. He takes evasive measures but the strikes the wall repeatedly. After finally getting the canopy turned away from the cliff, he lands hard on the talus and tumbles to a stop thirty feet below and doesn't move… Now the real adrenaline kicks in. What do you do?
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    Introduction
    The scenario above is a severe one, but all too possible. In the hazardous environment we know as BASE jumping, we often place ourselves in situations which may result in our injury or death. Due to the inherent risk involved with this activity, every time we jump there is a possibility that something will go wrong. Fortunately, the most common BASE injuries are relatively minor and having a basic knowledge of first aid can help dramatically. With immediate care you can reduce the lasting effects of many injuries, and the time it takes to recover. Another goal is to improve the comfort level of the injured. The scene of an accident is not the place to be thinking about learning lifesaving skills. Preparing yourself ahead of time will make you a more confident jumper and knowing your partners have the same skills will go a long way if you yourself happen to be the one needing help. For the purposes of this paper, I have tried to explain thing in layman's terms wherever possible and assume that you have taken a basic CPR course. (Call the American Red Cross or go to www.redcross.org.)
    Assessment
    This is where you size up the situation and the extent of the jumpers injuries. This is a process you will use for serious injuries. Your basic assessment should take about one minute. Not slow enough to waste valuable time, but not so fast that you miss important signs. Your minute will be divided into two phases: the Primary survey or ABC' s (15 seconds), and the Secondary survey (45 seconds).
    Primary: Establishing the severity of the situation.
    Make the scene as safe as possible. Move anything that may be a risk to you or the injured and get hysterical people out of the area. Send someone for help.
    Airway. Make the jumper has an airway. If they can talk to you, they have an airway. If not, check yourself. Use the head tilt/chin lift or a jaw thrust. (These techniques can be learned in a basic CPR course.)
    Breathing. Are they breathing? Put your ear to their mouth/nose area and look for the chest to rise and fall. If no breathing, revert to your CPR training.
    Circulation. Do they have a pulse? If not, start CPR. Is there profuse bleeding?
    Deformity. Are there obvious injuries?
    Expose. Weather conditions permitting, remove the clothes of the jumper (cut preferably) and cover with blankets as needed. Hypothermia is a possibility now and you need to be aware that the jumper may go into shock. Secondary:
    Eyes, ears, nose, and mouth:

    Eyes; in sunlight, cover the eyes then uncover them and see if the pupils react. At night use a light to check.
    Ears; is there any fluid coming out? Don't try to stop drainage.
    Nose; any bleeding?
    Mouth; look for blood or broken teeth. Teeth can be a choking hazard so remove loose, broken pieces.

    Neck: Can you see any obvious deformities?
    Chest: Can you see any section of the chest that moves opposite the rest when the patient breathes? (Broken ribs) Is there any tenderness?
    Abdomen: Is there any tenderness or does the abdomen seem more rigid than normal? (Internal bleeding) Are they trying to keep you from touching them?
    Pelvis: Any tenderness? Can you feel bones rubbing or grinding? Someone with a broken pelvis will sometimes feel like they're, "falling apart."
    Arms: Do you see any obvious fractures? Can you feel any bones grinding? Can you feel a pulse in the wrist? Check circulation by pressing on the fingernails and seeing how fast they get red underneath. Try this on yourself for a comparison. Can they feel you touching their hands? Can they move their arms? Have them squeeze both of your hands at the same time and feel if one side is weak.
    Legs: Do you see any obvious fractures? Can you feel bones grinding? Can you feel a pulse behind the ankle? (Check behind the big ball on the inside of the ankle.) Check the nail beds. Can they feel your touch? Can they wiggle their toes? By now, you should have an overall impression of how severe the jumpers' injuries might be. Now you can plan the best course of action for the rescue efforts. Redo this assessment every 3-5 minutes until EMS personnel take over. Be sure to report these findings to EMS personnel as it will provide useful information to them.
    For a quick set of field vital signs:
    Check the pulse and count beats per minute.
    Approximate blood pressure can be obtained without a stethoscope or BP cuff.
    A cool trick: If you can feel a wrist pulse, the systolic pressure is about 80. If
    you can feel a pulse on the inside of the arm where the bicep and tricep meet,
    it's about 70. If you can only feel it in the neck, it's about 60.
    Check breaths per minute. This may not mean much to you but if you can provide EMS workers with a sheet of vital signs detailing every five minutes in the past half hour, it can increase your friends' odds of surviving. This is because it shows the "trend" of vital signs and can give valuable clues about the condition of the jumper.
    Shock
    Shock can have several different causes but the likely causes in our situations would be trauma to the nervous system, or loss of blood. Shock occurs when tissues and vital organs are not getting enough oxygen from the bloodstream.
    Symptoms of shock include:
    Pale, cool, clammy skin
    Restlessness
    Nausea/vomiting
    Rapid breathing
    Drop in blood pressure The first step in treating shock is to stop blood loss. Then, cover the jumper with a blanket. As long as injuries don't prevent you from doing so, elevate the feet about 8-10 inches over the heart. They may get thirsty but try not to give anything to eat or drink. If there may be a long delay until help arrives, you can give small amounts of water at room temperature. Even if a jumper doesn't display symptoms of shock, treat for shock anyway. They might not be in shock yet.
    Bleeding
    There are three types of bleeding: capillary, veinous, and arterial. Capillary bleeding is the oozing blood you see when you skin your knee. It is minor and not life threatening. Veinous bleeding is blood from a vein. It is dark red and flows out of the wound. Arterial bleeding is pretty obvious since there will usually be an arc of bright red blood spurting out of the body. Arteries carry lots of blood and arterial blood loss can be immediately life threatening.
    Stop the bleeding:
    Apply pressure directly over the wound. If you have a clean dressing,
    use it. If you don't have something sterile, use what you have. A shirt or towel will work. If the wound gets dirty, we can treat it with antibiotics later.
    If direct pressure fails to stop the bleeding, combine direct pressure
    with elevating the wound over the heart.
    If the bleeding still hasn't stopped, apply direct pressure to a pressure
    point. There are eleven pressure points on each side of the body.






    If all else has failed, use a tourniquet. The decision to use a tourniquet
    is a serious one. This will completely stop the blood supply to the extremity involved and may result in that limb being amputated. Use it in a life or death situation. To apply a tourniquet:
    Wrap a band around the limb. Preferably, use something flat and at least one finger wide. A strap from a stashbag will work.
    Tie it in a knot around the limb.
    Lay a stick or similar object directly on the knot and tie another knot over it.
    Twist the stick to tighten the band. Twist it until the bleeding stops.
    Tie the stick in position.
    Record what time you applied the tourniquet and once it's on, DO NOT remove it.
    Femur Fractures
    The femur is the long bone between your hip and knee. Alongside your femur, lies the femoral artery. The femoral is one of the largest arteries in your body and cutting it can result in bleeding to death very rapidly. For this reason, proper attention to femur fractures is extremely important. Fortunately, the femur is a serious chunk of bone so it takes a lot of force to fracture it.
    If you suspect that the jumper has a femur fracture, you must not let them attempt to walk on it!
    After the thigh is injured, the muscles will spasm. If the femur isn't there to support the muscle, the sharp bone ends can cut muscle tissue, nerves, and the femoral artery. The way to prevent this is to apply traction in the long axis of the bone. The easiest method of applying traction is to use a traction splint. (The Kendrick traction splint™ is a very BASE friendly item to have. It costs about $100 and folds into a pouch that will fit inside a hip pouch or cargo pocket. If you were sitting there with a femur fracture I could offer you one for a couple thousand dollars and you'd accept.)
    To apply traction, pull straight on the ankle. Imagine trying to stretch the leg and make it longer. You will need to keep constant traction until an actual traction splint is available. It is very important that you never let up the tension or else serious damage may result. If the shoe comes off, the resulting rebound will be excruciating and bad things will happen. For this reason, remove the shoe on the broken leg. The jumper won't be walking anyway.





    Splinting
    Splinting is not really a science. When a bone breaks, the ends are usually very sharp. When these sharp edges move around, you can damage muscle tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. In order to prevent this, you splint the affected bone to immobilize it. Sometimes, you use whatever is available.
    There are two classifications of fractures, closed fractures and open fractures. Closed fractures include any fracture where the bone does not break the skin. In such instances, proper treatment includes immobilizing the fracture and seeking medical attention. Open fractures occur when a bone breaks through the skin.
    Signs of a fracture include:
    A bone end sticking out of the body,
    A grinding feeling at the site of the suspected fracture,
    Deformity of the limb,
    Loss of ability to move the limb,
    Loss of pulse or sensation,
    Muscle spasms. Your first step in treating a possible fracture is to stop and take a deep breath.
    Few fractures are life threatening unless they are mishandled. If there's no apparent life threatening injury, the best approach is a slow methodical one.
    Cut away clothing from the area and control any bleeding. If you find an open fracture, treat it like any other wound.
    Generally, you don't want to attempt to straighten out a broken limb. Don't try to realign the bones yourself. There are exceptions to this. If the limb has no pulse or is losing color, you may need to reduce the angle of the fracture to restore circulation. If you need to transport the jumper over rough terrain, a limb sticking out to the side will make things difficult. In these situations, not splinting would be more dangerous. IF YOU DECIDE TO ADJUST A FRACTURE, keep in mind that the sharp end can do major damage to the surrounding tissues so limit movement as much as possible. Also, have someone hold the jumpers arms so you don't catch a right hook.
    The goal in splinting is to immobilize the bone that is broken. You should try to immobilize the joint above and below the fracture.
    Find something to use as a splint. Most sites where we jump are in wooded areas so there is usually a variety of sticks and branches to choose from. If possible, pad the splinting materials with a towel or shirt to take up the space between the limb and the splint. This will also improve the comfort of the jumper. Use your imagination and you can usually come up with a splint for most fractures.
    Forearms can be fractured when you try to catch yourself during a less-than-graceful landing. Fractured forearms should be splinted with a natural curl of the fingers. Place a roll of gauze, or something similar in the palm of the hand. This will go a long way to improve comfort.
    If you suspect fractured ribs, you can pad the chest and gently wrap it. Placing the arm on the affected side into a sling helps. Try so calm the jumper and have them sit down until help arrives. Limit movement since a fractured rib can puncture a lung.
    If you suspect a skull fracture, DO NOT place pressure on the head. Monitor level of consciousness and do not give morphine!
    Joint injuries
    Damaging joints is a constant threat to BASE jumpers. Ankles are the most frequently injured joints skydiving, BASE jumping, and most sports. There's a saying that goes, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." This applies to us because it is pretty easy to reduce the number of ankle injuries. Wearing an ankle brace is an easy and effective measure to prevent hurting your ankles in a sketchy landing. They're available at any sporting goods store. A simple low-grade sprain can keep you grounded for a weekend. A serious sprain can keep you from jumping for a year or longer.
    If you break a bone, it will usually heal stronger than it was before you fractured it. Ligaments, tendons, and other soft tissues may never completely recover from injuries. Ask anyone who's been jumping for a few years.
    If a jumper injures a joint in the field to the point that it will not bear bodyweight, you should treat it as a fracture until an x-ray can prove otherwise. Splint it and proceed to the nearest hospital for evaluation.
    All Sprains can be treated with the acronym, R.I.C.E.
    Rest: stay off the affected joint and give it time to heal.
    Ice: apply ice, cold packs or frozen vegetables to the joint. Peas work well because they will conform to the shape of the joint. Just don't eat them after several freeze/thaw cycles.
    Compress: wrap the joint firmly but not too tight. An ACE wrap can is ideal. If your fingers or toes turn purple, it's too tight. If you squeeze your nail-beds, the color should return immediately. If not, re-wrap more loosely.
    Elevate: Kick back and have a cold one. Try to keep the injured joint at about heart level. This regimen can be supplemented by taking Motrin (ibuprofen) or Aleve (naprosyn). Follow dosing directions on the package. Both are anti-inflammatories and will help with the pain. If this treatment isn't working, it might be a good time to see a doctor.
    Summary
    This paper is by no means, a complete set of first aid information for the BASE jumper. In addition to reading this paper, I highly recommend enrolling in a CPR class, a basic first aid course, and an EMT Basic course. Most junior colleges offer an EMT course and CPR is usually included. These classes will show you how to approach an injury and decide on the most appropriate course of action.
    First aid is a skill-set we hope to never need. The harsh reality of our sport is that there will be more injuries, and there will be more fatalities. Hopefully someday BASE jumpers will stop being injured and killed. Until that day comes, we all need to know what to do when accidents happen.
    ---Dexterbase
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    By admin, in Disciplines,

    BASE Jumping

    Photo by Jussi Laine

    BASE jumping is the sport of using a parachute to jump from fixed objects. "BASE" is the acronym for the four general types of objects participants jump from: Buildings, Antennae, Spans (bridges) and Earth (cliffs).
    BASE jumping is arguably one of the most dangerous and extreme sports on the planet, with a high potential for injuries or fatalities. We do not recommend BASE jumping to anyone. If you are a highly experienced parachutist and are interested in BASE jumping, seek guidance from an experienced BASE jumper in your area. Otherwise, don't do it.
    For more BASE Jumping information, visit the following sections on BASEjumper.com:
    BASE Jumping Articles

    BASE Jumping Forums

    BASE Jumping Gear

    BASE Jumping Photos

    BASE Jumping Videos

    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Atmonauti MOPs and PASA

    CONTENTS 1. GENERAL



    1.1 THE CATEGORY TESTS ARE DESIGNED FOR

    1.2 ATMONAUTI COACHES

    1.3 TEACHING FORMAT

    1.4 COACHING CRITERIA & LAYOUT OF INSTRUCTIONAL COURSE

    >2. EQUIPMENT



    2.1 CONTAINER

    2.2 DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM

    2.3 ALTIMETERS

    2.4 CLOTHING

    2.5 AAD (AUTOMATIC ACTIVATION DEVICE)

    2.6 RESERVE HANDLES

    2.7 GOGGLES

    2.8 HELMET

    3. PROCEDURES & RULES OF THE SKY



    3.1 DEFINITIONS

    3.2 GROUP LOADS

    3.3 FLIGHT PATTERNS

    4. CATEGORY TESTS AND REQUIREMENTS



    4.1.a FRONTMONAUTI

    4.1.b CATEGORY II

    4.2.a BACKMONAUTI

    4.2.b CATEGORY III

    4.3 FLIGHT NAVIGATOR

    4.4.a FOOTMONAUTI

    4.4.b CAT IV

    5. LICENCE REQUIREMENTS
    6. COACHES

    1. GENERAL
    Atmonauti, unlike traditional freefall - including tracking and flocking - (that utilises the relative gravitational wind from “below” to achieve a multitude of stable body positions at terminal velocity) is the term given to the technique that intentionally utilises lift to compensate for the effect of gravity, in order to achieve relative wind (or a custom “tube”) at an angle of between 30deg - 75deg, where after the atmonaut (atmosphere navigator) introduces a multitude of three dimensional body positions, transitions, and docks, while “falling” at greatly reduced speeds (70mph – 110mph), resulting in extended free-fall time and increased safety.
    Atmonauti, due to the reduced air speeds, is a social discipline, which is accessible to the masses.
    Atmonauti incorporates Frontmonauti, Backmonauti, Footmonauti, and Inverted Footmonauti.
    The Atmonauti coach is the navigator in the group jumps, is capable of coaching single jumpers and/or groups of jumpers at ground-school level specific to safety, technique, navigation, slot positioning and break-off etc. and is furthermore responsible to fly as base navigator in the formation, while communicating body position improvements and general flight path direction and break-off.
    It will be necessary that the coaches are involved in the management of the activity at the centres and be responsible for all activities different from vertical fall, specific to flight planning.
    The logical progression of skills is:

    1. understanding the concept of flight vs. fall,

    2. understanding the concept of no-fly zones and flying on “level”,

    3. “flying” the tube (frontmonauti and backmonauti),

    4. adjusting speeds,

    5. adjusting levels,

    6. rotating around two of the three axes,

    7. transitions into the various body positions,

    8. break-off direction and altitudes.
    As soon as a student has successfully completed ISP progression, such a student can choose to progress to Atmonauti.
    An Atmo ISP programme is designed to assist ISP Students who wish to progress to Atmonauti CAT II and CAT III.
    Jump 1 - one on one with coach

    Jump 2 - one on one with coach

    Jump 3 - one on one with coach

    Jump 4 - one on one with coach

    Jump 5 - group jumps, with maximum 2 Cat I students

    Jump 6 - group jumps, with maximum 2 Cat I students

    Jump 7 - group jumps, with maximum 2 Cat I students
    B licence and above may join coaching groups without the Cat II requirement.
    1.1 THE CATEGORY TEST JUMPS ARE DESIGNED FOR
    The student who has obtained Category I status through the successful completion of the Intermediate Skills Programme.
    1.2 ATMONAUTI COACHES
    The Atmonauti category system is instruction based. In order for students to progress safely and without learning bad habits, it is essential that coaches actively participate. Current and competent PASA rated Atmonauti Coaches, who need not be PASA instructors, can teach it. Provided that the teaching is standardised (taken directly from the manual) the student should be able to visit any drop zone in the country and receive the same coaching and information. The holder of a current coach rating must sign off Category II, Category III and Category IV tests.
    CATEGORY SYSTEM COACH’S OBJECTIVES
    • To provide information before, during and after the skydive

    • To teach basic Atmonauti and further discipline skills, as laid down in this section

    • To teach SAFE Atmonauti flying in any one of the disciplines in a way that both the coach and student never loose sight of having fun

    • To communicate in the air by using “in air” signals

    • To teach and remedy mistakes as they happen in order that the student may carry on learning throughout the skydive

    • To give the student a good deal



    NOTE: Acknowledge if you have made a mistake – the student will appreciate an honest coach.
    1.3 TEACHING FORMAT
    Before the jump:


    • Check student’s logbook - look for indication of a student’s ability.

    • Talk through student’s objectives - applicable to the skydive.

    • Talk through the jump sequence and show a video if possible.

    • Teach each new skill in turn - applicable to the skydive.

    • Discuss importance of flying minimum 45 degrees off jump run, and following the Coach/Navigator at all times.

    • Dirt dive the jump sequence as best as possible from exit to pull (talking the student through).

    • Dirt dive the jump sequence as best as possible from exit to pull (the student talking you through).

    • Confirm in air signals (practice these with student).

    • Confirm break off altitudes and direction of break-off.

    • Confirm emergency procedures.

    • Check equipment and dirt dive more.
    In the Aircraft:


    • During the climb (approximately 5000ft) ask the student to talk you through the skydive from exit to pull.

    • Suggest that the student mentally dirt dives periodically until run-in.

    • On run-in and before exit check pins and puffs.

    • Take student to the door and observe the spot.
    After the Jump:


    • Debrief – first the student’s version then the coach’s (dirt dive exactly what happened from exit to pull)

    • Corrective training – establish the student’s weak points and give corrective training. Advise the student what to practice on the next jump.

    • Logbook – student to fill in the logbook making comments on each part of the jump sequence. Coach must write in their recommendation for a repeat or pass on the skydive.
    NOTE: It is recommended that the coach jump with a camera. Video is one of the best training tools.
    NOTE: The next coach can obtain valuable information if the logbook has been filled in correctly.
    1.4 COACHING CRITERIA & LAYOUT OF INSTRUCTIONAL COURSE
    1.4.1 Introduction
    Atmonauti is the term given to the technique that intentionally utilises the torso (as an aerofoil) to generate lift, while ‘diving’ at an angle of between 30deg – 75deg to generate relative wind required for lift.
    1.4.2 Comparison Freefall vs Atmonauti/Flight (including tracking)
    Freefall = no lift attempted. Tracking = spilling air. ATMO = lift generated with angle + torso.
    1.4.3 Concept of lift, how to use the torso as an aerofoil, including angle
    Discuss aerofoil, relative wind striking leading edge travelling over torso, importance of angle.
    1.4.4 Round vs Square canopies (drag vs flight)



    • Round = Drag, no lift, freefall

    • Square = angle of attack to generate air speed, use of aerofoil to create lift, front/rear risers
    1.4.5 Body Positions – Frontmonauti only, Backmonauti as reference



    • General Body Position - Chin Down, Arms Forward, hips back, retaining curvature

    • Control surfaces – Arms and legs to speed up and down, use of hips to change angle

    • Backmonauti position discussed briefly for reference only.
    1.4.6 Fly Zones, flying on head level



    • General set up above and ahead, seeking opposite horizon

    • Discuss head level at angle in relation to the ground

    • Discuss no fly zones and reasons
    1.4.7 Exit – placing in door, count, exit order, correct body position on exit
    1.4.8 Flight path – 45 min deg to jump run (safety 1st)
    Discuss importance of flying off jump run and staying with group to avoid risk of collision, move to centre on opening i.e. after break-off return to common centre away from jump run until other canopies open.
    1.4.9 Break-off and varying altitudes of break-off for groups
    Maintaining position in group, breaking off with angle of 45 deg between jumpers “fanning out”
    1.4.10 Signals
    Turn left/right, speed up, increase angle, break off, other
    1.4.11 Equipment including audible altimeters
    1.4.12 Log book and reference to Manual of Procedures, briefing and debriefing of jump, signing of logbook, informing NSTO of category qualifications, etc.

    2. EQUIPMENT
    Every skydiver’s nightmare is a premature opening. Firstly, the jumper may be transitioning and become entangled; secondly, they will be going faster than the recommended canopy opening speed; potentially fast enough to hurt, seriously injure or even blow up the reserve.
    2.1 CONTAINER
    Containers must be tight fitting and should never allow for exposure of risers, pins and most importantly the bridle and pilot chute. Exposed risers are not recommended. Ensure that all pin protection flaps and riser covers are secure as with AE container requirements.
    2.2 DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM
    Bottom of container (BOC) throwaway or a pullout deployment are vital as the pilot chute and bridle must be stowed tightly away from the airflow. NO leg strap throwaway’s allowed. Keep your closure loop tight and in good condition, inspect it for wear on a regular basis (every pack job) and check Velcro for wear.
    2.3 ALTIMETERS
    It is advisable for every participant to wear not only visual, but audible altimeters on all Atmonauti flights.
    However, it is a compulsory requirement that a minimum of 50% of the atmonauts on the same formation wear audible altimeters.
    2.4 CLOTHING
    It is important that clothing does not restrict movement and that it does not cover cut-away / reserve handles
    2.5 AAD (AUTOMATIC ACTIVATION DEVICE)
    An AAD is recommended to all those who can afford it. The potential for collisions exists.
    2.6 RESERVE HANDLES
    Ensure that Velcro is in a good condition. One can also decide to change the metal D – handle to a puff the same as the cutaway puff. However if you prefer to jump with your alti on your palm the D – handle is the preferred option.
    2.7 GOGGLES
    Should not limit visibility and should be securely tightened, as the varying body positions and higher speeds easily dislodge them.

    2.8 HELMET
    A hard shell helmet (and goggles – for open face helmets) is compulsory for all Atmo skydivers excluding “D” licence holders.

    3. PROCEDURES AND RULES OF THE SKY
    3.1 DEFINITIONS
    Student refers to the person performing the test
    Coach refers to the coach of the test, as well as the reference point or Navigator for the student. It is the responsibility of the student to appoint a capable coach / cameraperson and confirm it with the CI.

    Navigator refers to the person in the sky toward whom the student or the rest of the formation is working towards, who sets angle and speed, and who’s responsibility it is to fly minimum 45 degrees off of jump run.

    Atmonauti Relative Work (ARW) refers to Sequences and Blocks, including transitions and inters, to include Frontmonauti, Backmonauti and Footmonauti positions.

    Backmonauti refers to the performer flying on heading on his back with his back towards the earth.

    Frontmonauti refers to the performer flying on heading on his belly with his back towards the sky.

    Footmonauti refers to the performer flying on heading feet-first with his back towards the ground.

    Break Off refers to separation in the sky prior to opening altitude. Minimum break off altitude is 4500ft AGL to allow for good separation and time to slow down. Please see 3.2 Group Loads for additional information specific to Group break off minimum requirements.

    Grip is a recognisable stationary contact of the hand(s) of one competitor on a specified part of the body or harness of the other competitor, executed in a controlled manner.

    Dock is a recognisable stationary contact of the foot (feet) of the one competitor on a specified part of the body or harness of the other competitor, executed in a controlled manner.

    Atmonauti position: objective is to achieve head-on relative wind (or a custom “tube”) at an angle of between 30deg – 75deg to the ground, with horizontal movement in relation to the ground, whilst searching for lift with the torso - freeing up the limbs to achieve hand grips and foot docks.

    Heading refers to the direction in which the “leading edge” of the performer faces.
    Leading edge refers to a specific body part of the performer (either head or feet) which is the first point of contact with the relative wind generated from the angle of attack.

    No Fly Zone Frontmonauti: Behind, below, and not on head level during the approach

    No Fly Zone Backmonauti: Ahead, above, and not on head level during the approach
    Head level: The level of the approaches - utilising the head as reference in relation to the angel of attack set by Navigator.
    3.2 GROUP LOADS
    Groups from 2 – 3 jumpers will break off at an altitude of 4500 feet AGL, in accordance with the break-off pattern as briefed by the coach/navigator.
    Groups from 4 – 7 jumpers will break off in two phases, with 4 jumpers breaking off at 5000 feet AGL and the remaining jumpers breaking off at 4500 feet AGL, in accordance with the break-off pattern as briefed by the coach/navigator.
    Groups from 8 – 11 jumpers will break off in three phases, with 4 jumpers breaking off at 5500 feet AGL, 4 jumpers breaking off at 5000 feet AGL, and the remaining jumpers breaking off at 4500 feet AGL, in accordance with the break-off pattern as briefed by the coach/navigator.
    Groups from 12 – 15 jumpers will break off in four phases, with 4 jumpers breaking off at 6000 feet AGL, 4 jumpers breaking off at 5500 feet AGL, 4 jumpers breaking off at 5000 feet AGL, and the remaining jumpers breaking off at 4500 feet AGL, in accordance with the break-off pattern as briefed by the coach/navigator.
    Minimum exit altitude for Atmonauti jumps is 7000 feet AGL.
    3.3 FLIGHT PATTERNS
    Flight patterns are in accordance with aircraft exit patterns as briefed by the coach or navigator, but whereby in general it is important to note that experienced navigator groups exit first and whereby inexperienced solo jumpers/groups will exit last (excluding wingsuit jumpers), and should be discussed prior to boarding with the pilot.
    In general the Atmonauti groups fly at minimum 45 deg to run-in so as to fly away from, and create separation to, freefall jumpers exiting closer to the dz.
    In the event that more than one Atmonauti group is present on the aircraft, the first group will exit at 45 deg to right and the second group 45 deg to the left and third group 45 deg to right (as with first group) and so on.
    Inexperienced groups exiting last should be aware that a flight pattern of 130 deg might be required in order to avoid flying away from the recommended landing area. Attention should be paid to the direction of the preceding Atmonauti loads to avoid opening close to such preceding groups.

    4 CATEGORY TESTS AND REQUIREMENTS
    Cat I and B, C & D licence jumpers may commence a Cat II and Cat III Atmonauti progression course.
    One-on-one instructionals are not obligatory but highly recommended.
    4.1.a Frontmonauti



    • have passed a theory exam on the basic Frontmonauti rules and techniques.

    • have passed a test that consists of performing a flight with the instructor who, during the flight, will perform changes of speed, of angle and of trajectory.

    • the candidate will have to demonstrate the ability to always remain at a constant distance in relation to the coach, and never be in the “no fly zones”.

    • have passed practice jumps that consists of being able to synchronize with the formation and remain at a constant distance, and on level with it, for the duration of the flight, while never going into the “no-fly zone”.

    • have shown the ability to correctly separate in frontmonauti at break off.

    • to execute the above test correctly on three consecutive flights.
    4.1.b CAT II



    • have successfully passed Frontmonauti brevet/license requirements (see above).

    • have passed a test of exiting the aircraft 1 second after the coach, taking a stable dock from the fly-zone within 10 seconds, holding the dock for 5 seconds, releasing and crossing over the coach to the opposite side, taking a stable dock and holding the dock for 5 seconds.
    Once the Atmonauti CAT II is obtained, the candidate will be free to participate in large Atmonauti groups utilising the Frontmonauti body position exclusively without a recognised coach present.
    4.2.a Backmonauti



    • have passed a theory exam on the basic Backmonauti rules and techniques.

    • have passed a test that consists of performing a flight with the coach who, during the flight, will perform changes of speed, of angle and of trajectory.

    • the candidate will have to demonstrate the ability to always remain at a constant distance in relation to the coach, and never be in the “no fly zones”.

    • have passed practice jumps that consists of being able to synchronize with the formation and remain at a constant distance, and on level with it, for the duration of the flight, while never going into the “no-fly zone”.

    • have shown the ability to correctly separate in backmonauti at break off.

    • to execute the above test correctly on three consecutive flights.
    4.2.b CAT III



    • have successfully passed Backmonauti brevet/license requirements (see above).

    • have passed a test of exiting the aircraft 1 second prior to the coach, taking a stable dock from the fly-zone within 10 seconds, holding the dock for 5 seconds, releasing and sliding under the instructor to the opposite side, taking a stable dock and holding the dock for 5 seconds.
    Once the Atmonauti CAT III is obtained, the candidate will be free to participate in large Atmonauti groups utilising the Frontmonauti and Backmonauti body positions, including transitions, without a recognised coach present.
    4.3 Flight Navigator
    The navigator qualification allows the navigator to navigate group Atmonauti loads of recognised Cat II and Cat III atmonauts. This qualification is not a coach qualification.



    • Must have a JM rating

    • Must pass a theory exam on Atmonauti Navigation rules and techniques.

    • Must exit the aircraft stable, and maintain a stable and consistent frontmonauti body position.

    • the candidate will have to demonstrate the ability to fly and maintain a safe and correct flight path.
    4.4.a Footmonauti



    • have passed a theory exam on the basic Footmonauti rules and techniques.

    • have passed a test that consists of performing a flight with the coach who, during the flight, will perform changes of speed, angle and trajectory.

    • the candidate will have to demonstrate the ability to always remain at a constant distance in relation to the coach, and never be in the “no fly zones”.

    • have passed practice jumps that consists of being able to synchronize with the formation and remain at a constant distance, and on level with it, for the duration of the flight, while never going into the “no-fly zone”.

    • have shown the ability to correctly separate in footmonauti at break off.

    • to execute the above test correctly on three consecutive flights.
    4.4.b CAT IV



    • have successfully passed Footmonauti brevet/license requirements (see above).

    • have passed a test of exiting the aircraft 1 second prior/after the coach, taking a stable footmonauti position from the fly-zone within 10 seconds, holding the position for 5 seconds.

    • Demonstrate the ability to transition safely (180 side transition) into backmonauti.

    • Demonstrate the ability to transition safely (180 side transition) from backmonauti to footmonauti
    Once the Atmonauti CAT IV is obtained, the candidate will be free to participate in large Atmonauti groups utilising the Frontmonauti, Backmonauti and Footmonauti body positions, including transitions.

    5. LICENCE REQUIREMENTS
    A-Licence:

    As per section 2 of the MOPs.
    B-Licence:

    As per section 2 of the MOPs.
    CAT II & CATIII qualification in Atmonauti - signed off by a recognised Atmonauti Coach.
    C-Licence:

    As per section 2 of the MOPs.
    Flight Navigator and Coach qualification in Atmonauti - signed off by a recognised Atmonauti Coach.
    D-Licence:

    As per section 2 of the MOPs.
    CAT IV qualification in Atmonauti - signed off by a recognised Atmonauti Coach.



    6. COACHES
    The coach rating is designed to give a formal qualification to those who teach Atmonauti jumpers up to Cat IV level. All applicants for coach ratings must be recommended by a CI and endorsed by the Atmonauti sub committee of the SSA (see Form 19).
    The Atmonauti coach is the navigator on the coaching group jumps, and is capable of coaching single jumpers and/or groups of jumpers at ground-school level specific to safety, technique, navigation, slot positioning and break-off etc.
    The coach is qualified to fly as base navigator in Instructional Formations, while communicating body position improvements and general flight path direction.
    The candidate should know perfectly all the rules specific to Atmonauti, as well as general club rules, and general knowledge of the MOPs and above all he should be able to explain them in an easy and correct manner.
    An applicant for an Atmonauti Coach Rating must:



    • Have a minimum of 200 jumps?

    • Hold a PASA B, C or D licence?

    • Have successfully completed a PASA-ADZO approved Jumpmaster, Static Line Instructor, or AFF Instructor Course.

    • Have matured his/her experience in Atmonauti, and holds a valid Cat II and Cat III in Atmonauti.

    • Hold a valid Navigator qualification.

    • Have acquired the technique and philosophy of the Atmonauti discipline and is capable of communicating such information in a simple and understandable fashion.

    • Have passed an Atmonauti Coach Evaluation Test that consists of:

    - exiting the plane a second after the coach

    - performing a frontmonauti hand grip on his right within 10 seconds from the exit

    - flying the grip perfectly for 5 seconds

    - leaving the grip and passing above the coach at not more than a meter, passing to his left and performing a hand grip on the left hand of the coach

    - flying the grip perfectly for 5 seconds

    - leaving the grip and performing a transition to backmonauti

    - performing a grip in backmonauti on the left hand of the coach

    - flying it perfectly for 5 seconds

    - leaving the grip, while remaining in backmonauti and passing under the coach to the right side of the coach, and performing a grip on the right hand of the coach

    - flying the grip perfectly for 5 seconds

    • Have passed an oral exam on the Atmonauti technique, and have the necessary knowledge required for the instructor rating, specific to organising large formations (coaching, planning the formations, break-off etc)

    • Have passed an evaluation practice test that consists in organizing an Atmonauti group jump including verbal instructionals, preparation on the ground (analysis of the conditions and parameters), flight planning, briefing, and debriefing all the phases of the flight.
    Once having passed these tests, the candidate will receive an Atmonauti Coach Rating and can start the activity of Coach and organizer of instructional flight groups.
    It will be necessary that the Coaches are involved in the management of the activity at the DZ’s and be responsible for all activities different from vertical fall, specific to flight planning (flight patterns).
    To remain current as an Atmonauti Coach the rating holder must:



    • Have performed at least 50 jumps in the previous 12 months of which 25 must be Atmonauti coaching jumps.

    • Have performed the Atmonauti coach evaluation jump with a current Atmonauti coach, respectively changing roles to prove ability as a coach and flying skill accordingly.

    • Attendance of an Atmonauti sanctioned coaching seminar in the previous 12 months is highly recommended.

    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Annexure C – ARW2 Super Advanced

    Both competitors participate exclusively in the orientation of 'Fronmonaut" and "Backmonaut".
    Make-up of the 5 manches:
    Manche 1 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 2 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]

    Manche 3 : 1 [Free] + 2 [Block]

    Manche 4 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 5 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]
    For every manches there will be a draw of the individual moves for the respective and eventual sequence.












    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Annexure B – ARW2 Advanced

    Both competitors participate exclusively in the orientation of "Frontmonaut" and "Backmonaut".
    Make-up of the 5 manches:
    Manche 1 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 2 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]

    Manche 3 : 3 [Free] + 2 [Block]

    Manche 4 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 5 : 3 [Free] + 1 [Block]
    For every manches there will be a draw of the individual moves for the respective and eventual sequence.
    Moves for the category Advanced

















    By admin, in Disciplines,

    Annexure A – ARW2 Intermediate

    Intermediate
    Both competitors participate exclusively in the orientation of Frontmonaut.
    Make-up of the 5 manches:
    Manche 1 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 2 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 3 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]

    Manche 4 : 3 [Free]

    Manche 5 : 2 [Free] + 1 [Block]
    For every manches there will be a draw of the individual moves for the respective and eventual sequence.
    Moves for the Category Intermediate




    By admin, in Disciplines,

    An Introduction to Piece Flying on Formation Skydives

    (This article was first published in the August 2004 issue of Parachutist as “One Good Turn Deserves Another”. Since then, the article has been updated and improved.)
    Turning a piece on a formation skydive is not as simple as yanking it around and hoping it will stop where it is supposed to. Jumpers in the piece must help it stay close and level throughout the turn, and they must help their piece partners start and stop the turn without rotating it too far or slamming it into the other piece.
    A piece that is yanked around too fast can rotate too far or even injure somebody. A piece that is not completely turned or turned incorrectly can drift away and actually become harder to control. This article shows the correct (and safe) techniques for turning pieces on recreational RW loads.
    Meet the minimum skill level
    Before jumpers participate in a skydive that involves piece turning, they should meet the requirements for a USPA A license, which means that they can do individual 360-degree turns, dock on another skydiver, maintain eye contact, track, wave off, and pull. In addition, jumpers should be able to dock on small formations such as a 4-way Star.
    Start with partial turns
    Newer jumpers should start with partial turns (180 degrees or less) on small formations. Here is a fun drill. Build a 4-way Open Accordion, break it in the middle, turn the two pieces 180 degrees and re-dock. This puts the jumpers who were on the inside on the outside, and vice versa.
    In this drill, think more about “trading places” with your piece partner than about turning the piece. The piece will automatically rotate if you move to the slot vacated by your piece partner. As you move, try to help place your piece partner in the spot you just vacated, keeping your piece level with the other piece as you do. Repeat the process to place yourselves back in your original slots then repeat the drill until breakoff.

    Move on to 360-degree turns
    Once you can do drills like the one described above, you are ready to move on to 360-degree turns on small formations. A good drill for this is the Zig Zag – Marquis 4-way block.
    A “block” is a two-formation set in which jumpers build the first formation, split into pieces, rotate the pieces then reconnect them to form the second formation. In competition, experienced teams speed up their turns by rotating the end of one piece over the end of the other piece – in essence, reducing a 360-degree turn to 270 degrees or even less. But in this article, we only discuss flat turns because they normally work best on recreational loads where the objective is not speed but smooth level turns.

    In the Zig Zag – Marquis block shown above:
    To start the turn, Jumpers A and B break grips and turn approximately 90 degrees to the right and stop, keeping each other in view over their left shoulder (helps them stay close and level). While this is happening, Jumpers C and D stay put except to extend their arms to let Jumpers A and B move.
    Once Jumpers A and B have moved, Jumpers C and D “trade places”, keeping each other in sight over their left shoulder as they move. When their legs almost touch, they stop, look over the other shoulder (called a “head switch”) and place Jumpers A and B together in the Marquis.
    While Jumpers C and D are finishing their turns, A and B also do a “head switch” and keep each other in view and on level while they are placed together.
    All jumpers should help keep the pieces level throughout the turn.
    Notes:
    To be safe while they trade places, Jumpers C and D do not move directly at each other, but slightly offset so that their legs do not collide.
    Also if they focus on “trading places” rather than spinning their partners around, the pieces are more likely to stay close. The same concepts used for the Zig Zag – Marquis example above can be applied to turning pieces in larger formations. Consider the following example.

    In the 9-way example above:
    Jumper A turns approximately 90 degrees to the right and stops, keeping the other pieces in view over his left shoulder (helps him stay level and close).
    Jumper B moves into the space cleared by Jumper A. At the same time, Jumper C moves into the space vacated by Jumper B.
    As soon as Jumper A feels the piece rotating, he looks over his right shoulder for the other pieces and stays level with them as the turn finishes.
    As the turn finishes, Jumpers B and C place Jumper A back into his original slot.
    All jumpers should help keep the pieces level throughout the turn. Note: Everybody’s initial moves should create enough momentum to keep the piece rotating. If it starts rotating too fast, Jumpers B and C can lower their right knee temporarily to put on the brakes. Similarly, if the piece stops rotating too soon, they can lower their left knee until it starts moving again.
    Rotate pieces on their center points
    To keep the pieces close throughout the turn, each jumper must help the piece rotate on its center point. Jumpers in each piece should watch the other piece over one shoulder as the turn starts, then “head switch” and watch it come back into view over the other shoulder as the turn completes. This helps keep the pieces close and on level and emphasizes the following point: If you keep your target in sight, you will be more likely to fly to it.
    Get the right grips
    In the dirt dive, jumpers should practice the grips they will be taking in the air. This way they won’t be fumbling around for grips when the piece starts turning.
    Also a grip should not hinder a piece partner’s ability to fly. This is especially true of leg grips. Do not grip at or below the knee because this hinders your piece partner’s ability to move his leg. Instead, grip as high as you can on the outside of his thigh so that when he moves his leg your grip doesn’t move much at all.
    Tip! High, outside leg grips also help people with short arm spans to fly when they have Sidebody grips. Sidebody grips consist of an arm and a leg grip on the side of your piece partner. It is much easier to fly if your arms aren’t all stretched out.
    Slow is Fast
    If the pieces drift apart and get on different levels during a turn, jumpers should not try to make up the distance too quickly. They should get the pieces level first then slowly make up the horizontal distance. Slamming the pieces together in a rush can possibly injure somebody or even cause a funnel. At the very least, it creates a wave throughout the formation that must be dealt with before jumpers break for the next point. If jumpers break before the formation settles down, they will more than likely end up on different levels again. It actually takes less time to get the pieces level and fly them smoothly back together than it does to slam them together then have to deal with an unstable formation. As often is the case, slow is fast.
    Give it time
    Like any skydiving technique, learning to turn pieces effectively takes time. Don’t expect to run straight from your A license exam to jumping on the hot RW loads. Practice on small formations first. Do some 4-way; there is no better training tool for learning how to turn pieces.
    With practice, you’ll learn to anticipate your moves and to work with other jumpers in the piece. Piece turning is definitely a group effort and when everybody is working together, it feels like the piece has eyes and a mind of its own as it does a smooth, quick and controlled 360-degree rotation then stops on a dime and makes a perfect re-dock on the other pieces!

    By elightle, in Disciplines,

    Advice for Starting Wingsuit BASE jumping

    Visit BASEjumper.com for more BASE jumping information, articles, photos, videos and discussions

    Section 1: Introduction
    Section 2: Before even considering doing a wingsuit BASE jump
    Section 3: So you still want to wingsuit BASE
    Section 4: You now have some wingsuit BASE experience, what’s next?
    Section 5: Conclusion
    Appendix A: Specific wingsuit drills to practice from the plane
    Appendix B: Relevant entries from “the list”
    Appendix C: Some considerations for wingsuit site selection


    Download Full Article in PDF




    1. Introduction:
    We have all seen the amazing videos of people like Robert, Yuri and Loic flying their wingsuits. It is natural to want to follow in their slipstreams but let us make sure we do so safely and with adequate preparation.
    This document is intended as an initial information source for BASE jumpers interested in starting wingsuit BASE.
    This document is not an instruction manual. It does not contain rules, only advice.
    Wingsuit BASE is more dangerous than normal BASE jumping if the jumper does not conduct adequate preparation.
    If you choose to pursue wingsuit BASE you are strongly recommended to seek instruction from an experienced wingsuit BASE jumper. There is no substitute for one to one coaching.
    A wingsuit allows for incredible freefall delays and horizontal distances to be achieved, almost eliminating the chance of striking the object you jumped off, the number one cause of BASE jumping fatalities.
    But jumping a wingsuit also has some serious drawbacks:
    The wingsuit restricts your physical movement making exits harder to perform i.e. difficult to climb down to the exit point, easier to go unstable and then harder to recover.

    The wingsuit complicates deployment and prevents you from controlling your canopy immediately after opening.

    The wingsuit jumper must carefully assess the terrain he intends to fly over as the eventual opening point and landing area will be different than for a normal BASE jump and will also depend on flight performance.

    Experienced BASE jumpers who use ground rush as an altitude indicator must exercise caution during their initial jumps. The low fall rate and high horizontal speeds can fool the jumper that they are higher than they actually are. The wingsuit ground rush for a minimal canopy ride is a lot less intense than for normal freefall.

    The wingsuit jumper must also pay attention to his altitude when flying down a talus or over sloping terrain. The jumper often focuses on the airspace they are flying towards, giving the illusion they have lots of altitude available (e.g. looking at the valley floor in front of them).

    In this situation the jumper must remember that the critical altitude is the immediate vertical elevation they have over the talus or slope. The wingsuit jumper must always ensure sufficient altitude for a safe deployment - bear in mind that as soon as the PC is released the wingsuit jumper will stop flying and drop vertically approx. 200’+ as the canopy deploys.

    Experienced wingsuit BASE jumpers may attempt to make jumps that would be otherwise impossible without a wingsuit. The jumper must be absolutely sure of his own capabilities and those of his equipment when undertaking jumps that allow little margin for error.



    2. Before even considering doing a wingsuit BASE jump you should be:
    An intermediate BASE jumper:
    With minimum 50 BASE jumps (but more jumps are strongly recommended!)
    Cool under pressure, very comfortable in the BASE environment
    Always performing solid exits, also when exiting with arms by your side
    Have good sub & terminal tracking skills
    Have excellent canopy flying skills and landing accuracy
    Have consistent record of stable deployments and on-heading openings An intermediate wingsuit skydiver:
    With minimum 50 wingsuit skydives (but more jumps are strongly recommended!)
    Who wears a wingsuit as if it were pyjamas, not feeling physically restricted by the fabric
    Always able to find the PC quickly and cleanly, with good on heading openings
    Well practiced at recovering from instability
    Able to unzip arm wings instantly after deployment - like 2nd nature
    Familiar using arm and leg cutaways in freefall and under canopy immediately after opening
    Able to fly the suit comfortably without “potato chipping” achieving reasonable fall rate and forward speed
    Ideally have performed some wingsuit balloon jumps to simulate the exit & sub terminal flight
    See Appendix B for specific flight drills to practice whilst jumping the wingsuit from the plane. A person who has read all the incident reports, analysed the contributing factors and accepted that wingsuit / BASE jumping is worth the risk of serious injury & death.




    3. So you still want to wingsuit BASE? Let’s talk about specific preparation:

    Equipment:
    First thing, it is strongly recommended to start wingsuit BASE using a low performance wingsuit i.e. Birdman Classic, GTi or similar. Once you have 10+ good wingsuit BASE jumps you could consider jumping with a higher performance suit.
    The following items are strongly recommended:
    A 1 or 2 pin BASE container for wingsuit BASE. The high speed airflow over the container and high deployment angle excludes the use of a Velcro rig.
    A normal terminal pack job i.e. symmetrical, mesh slider packed “up” (large or fine mesh depending on personal preference).
    ZP pilot chutes, the size depends on your canopy, between 34” – 38”. The PC should NOT have a hackey handle (or heavy handle). With a hackey PC handle there is the possibility of the bridle wrapping around the base of the handle. A heavy PC handle could contribute to PC hesitation. The following items are recommended:
    A container with “dynamic corners” or open corners.
    A suitable helmet, goggles and low profile protective pads.
    Back to the dropzone:

    Perform 20 hop-n-pops using your low performance wingsuit and a sensibly sized 7 cell main, or even better your BASE canopy in a skydiving rig. (The 20 jumps can count towards the 50)

    Work your deployment altitude gradually down to USPA minimum of 2200’, open by 2000’
    (Discuss this with your CCI / DZO first, some dropzones may enforce a higher pull altitude)

    If you have any instability, deployment or opening problems go back to full altitude jumps until they are rectified, use a BMI if necessary. During these 20 hop-n-pops think about your emergency drills for the following situations, bearing in mind the reduced altitude and time under canopy:
    Unstable exit
    Handle inside of pouch /BOC
    Hard pull
    Floating handle
    PC in tow
    Premature deployment
    Horseshoe malfunction
    Line twists
    Line over
    Water landing
    Jammed zip
    Now to a far away land:
    It is strongly recommended to go to one of the following well known “high” locations for your first wingsuit BASE jumps. Become familiar with the object performing normal BASE jumps, getting to know landing areas and outs, obstacles, rock drop, winds, talus / ledges etc.





    Site
    Pro
    Con


    Carl’s Huge wall in Northern Norway:
    Good vertical rock drop

    Huge LZ

    Good access

    Not many sheep and it rains a lot


    Norwegian Fjord in Southern Norway:
    Good vertical rock drop

    Medium sized LZ

    Good access

    Very expensive beer


    Italian Terminal wall:
    OK vertical rock drop

    Small LZ (assume Heli LZ)

    Good access

    Wind / turbulence can be a problem


    Swiss Fungus:
    Good vertical rock drop

    Large landing area

    Access is difficult, requiring high fitness level and basic climbing skills



    Once you are comfortable with the site, pick a day when you are feeling 100% and the weather conditions are perfect to make your first wingsuit BASE jump.
    Advice for your first wingsuit BASE jump. What to focus on?

    Being current! Make sure you get current at wingsuit skydiving and BASE jumping in the weeks running up to your first jump.

    Pack yourself a nice terminal opening, attach the wingsuit correctly with the PC packed in the BOC with the correct tension (not too loose or too tight). Perform a full gear check before the hike, avoid “exit gear fear” syndrome, as you will already be under pressure.

    Exit in a nice head high position, student style, with you arm wings open and your leg wing closed, your arm wings will help you balance and remain head high. 1-2 sec after exit slowly extend your leg wing and start to trim the suit as you feel the air speed picking up. Premature exposure of the leg wing can cause you to go head low – be warned! Better to be head high.

    If you should go head low, stay calm! Bring your head up and if the object allows it, try to stay parallel with the surface and build up some speed to allow you to pull up out of the dive more easily. You may wish to consider this possibility when selecting the site of your first few wingsuit jumps.

    After you have extended the leg wing focus on flying the suit efficiently away from the object pulling nice and high – don’t rush, take time to reach, grip and throw the PC. The PC throw should be vigorous to clear the burble the suit makes behind you. Remember to keep your body symmetrical at all times during deployment to help maintain on heading performance.

    It is recommended to learn to deploy from full flight as the BASE environment rarely allows enough altitude to collapse your wings and fall vertically prior to deploying. This also has the advantage of keeping the airflow over your body fast & clean reducing the chance of pilot chute hesitation. Deploying from full flight implies keeping your leg wing inflated and only collapsing your arm wings for the moment required to locate the PC. As your canopy reaches line stretch it is better to close your leg wing as it can catch air causing your body to twist. Your first 5 - 10 jumps should focus on a stable exit, flight and deployment, once you have these survival skills you can start to think about flight time and distance.




    4. You now have some wingsuit BASE experience, what’s next?
    Once you have become a competent wingsuit BASE jumper you could consider:
    Jumping a higher performance suit
    Jumping from lower objects, for example the higher exit points in the legal Swiss valley.
    Jumping camera
    Performing 2 ways +
    Opening up new objects
    Aerials
    Your imagination is the limit! Make sure there is video! Note:
    Trying to land any of the current wingsuit designs is only recommended for the terminally ill.
    You want to jump a higher performance wingsuit:
    So you have done approx. 10+ good wingsuit BASE jumps with a low performance suit and you now intend to jump a higher performance suit.
    Assuming you have trouble free experience flying the higher performance suit from the plane you can go ahead and use it for BASE.
    Treat your first wingsuit BASE jump using the higher performance wingsuit the same as your first wingsuit BASE jump.
    You want to jump a wingsuit that has a leg pouch PC:
    If you intend to use the leg pouch PC (e.g. S3 or Phoenix Fly wingsuit) - it is strongly recommended to perform the following ground and skydiving preparation.
    Prior to jumping the leg pouch PC perform a couple of thousand practice pulls on the ground. Be able to find the handle, regardless of body position with your eyes closed. Do 300 practice pulls a night for a week or so, simulating full flight then deployment.
    When packing the PC into the leg pouch assure that the Birdman or Phoenix Fly guide lines are followed. The PC should not be too loose or too tight. It is strongly recommended to bar tack the Velcro sleeve to the bridle - check that you leave enough free bridle between the bar tack and pin to ensure the Velcro is completely peeled before any tension is applied to the pin. Failure to do so can cause PC hesitation.
    Don’t mate the male-female Velcro over each other 100% when the suit is brand new, let the them overlap 50% to the side for the first few dozen jumps until the Velcro is slightly worn. For more details on assembling and packing the leg pouch PC system please refer to http://www.interone.net/learn/basepc.html.
    Perform at least 10 skydives with the system, using a wingsuit or BASE bridle, start with normal altitude jumps, performing dummy pulls in flight and then pulling high to give yourself extra time. Assuming you have no opening problems or issues finding the PC handle quickly & easily you can work down to lower altitude deployments.
    Treat your first wingsuit BASE jump using the leg pouch the same as your first wingsuit BASE jump.




    5. Conclusion
    Following these guidelines does not make wingsuit BASE jumping a safe activity.
    Wingsuit BASE is still a relatively new discipline. It requires jumpers to develop new skills, new muscle memory, new judgement and new understanding. Respect it.
    This document is by no means the final word on wingsuit BASE jumping, always seek advice and guidance from other experienced wingsuit jumpers and share what you discover.
    By taking part in this activity you are in effect a “test jumper”, we all still have a lot to learn….
    Let’s be careful out there
    Long Flights
    Contributors:
    James Boole

    Craig Poxon

    Robert Pecnik

    Simon Brentford

    Gray Fowler

    Yuri Kuznetsov

    Steve Schieberl

    Per Eriksson
    Disclaimer:
    The authors of this document accept no responsibility, financially or otherwise for any loss, serious injury or death that occurs as a result of any persons following the advice contained within this document.
    BASE jumping and wingsuit BASE jumping are extremely dangerous activities carrying risk of serious injury or death. Performing the activities described in this document with out becoming an expert skydiver and completing dedicated BASE / wingsuit training will likely result in a demonstration of natural selection.




    Appendix A
    Specific wingsuit drills to perform whilst jumping from the plane:
    Barrel rolls
    Front flips
    Back flying
    Flying and pulling with left arm wing closed (i.e. to simulate blown wing)
    Pulling out of steep dives quickly (i.e. bad exit)
    Dropping knees
    Turning with minimal altitude loss
    Carving turns
    Arching, de-arching
    Deploying from full flight
    Flying with one bootie off
    Turning only with legs
    Turning only with arms




    Appendix B – Wingsuit fatalities

    #67 Kirill Kiselev, September, 2002 
    Age: 27, from Ekaterininburg, Russia.

    Cliff Jump (Wing Suit)

    Vikesaxa (Eiksdalen Valley) Norway
    Impact
    I received this report from a close friend of Kirill who witnessed or heard most of the jump. Kirill has 500 skydives with 20 being with a wing suit, and 30 BASE jumps, with 2 being with a wing suit. This fatality began with an inadvertent low pull from a man who didn't do low pulls. His friend believes Kirill encountered a stability problem late in the flight. The friend, along with authorities, inspected Kirill's body and gear at the hospital. Kirill had opened his canopy, the slider is at the links. Both toggles are still stowed. The wing zippers are closed and the swoop cords are still over his fingers. The wing fabric between his legs is torn. His broken neck and one broken leg suggest opening and impact occurred at about the same time. The report intimates failure of the wingsuit material between Kirill's legs caused a stability problem at pull time. By the time Kirill stopped trying to overcome the situation and deploy, it is too late. Kirill is the first BASE jumper to die flying a wingsuit on a BASE jump.
    #68 Rob Tompkins, September 12, 2002 
    Lysbotn, Norway

    Cliff Jump (Wing Suit)

    Kjerag
    Impact
    This is the second wing suit BASE fatality. Rob has 247 BASE jumps with 92 being with a wing suit on the day he died. A report states: "For the last month, Rob had his eye on a particular jump between launch points 4 and 5. We looked at it, doing rock jumps and basically studying the jump. There are two launch points next to this particular jump, one with a 7-second drop and the other with an 8-second drop. Rob jumped the 7-second launch point 10 times always doing a reverse gainer. The place he's looking at now, he dubbed the, "RT Hjørner," and has a rock drop time of 5-seconds. We analyzed this site on video and with other wing suit  pilots. In my opinion, the jump is not achievable - and I repeated this to Rob. Other wing suit pilots said the same thing. Rob is convinced he can do it including a reverse gainer. After 7 seconds of freefall Rob impacted the talus ledge. He never tried to deploy his pilot chute, knowing that this would not save him. Rob believed he could out fly the ledge right up until he died. Rob is remembered as a good man, full of respect, and kind to everyone."
    #69 Lukas Knutsson, October 11, 2002

      Cliff Jump (Wing Suit)

    Engelberg, Switzerland (Cold Steel)
    Impact
    Lukas has a good launch and good flight with his wingsuit and pulled high over the landing area. This is the third BASE wing suit fatality. Despite a powerful pull the pilot chute ended up in the turbulence behind him. In the burble the pilot chute spun around very fast. Lukas notices the deployment is hesitating and collapsed his wings and rolled to one side to clear the pilot chute. At this point the pilot chute achieved bridle stretch but the bridle had entangled with the pilot chute so badly the pilot chute is almost totally collapsed. Lukas did rollover to the other side and struggled hard to get the canopy out of the container. However, the container remained closed to impact. Lukas is a very experienced long time BASE jumper (this site is now called "Cold Steel" in his honour) and he will be missed by the entire BASE community.
    #75 Gabi Dematte, August 13, 2003 
    Cliff Jump (Wing Suit)

    Gasterntal, Switzerland
    Cliff Strike & Impact
    The following report is from one of Gabi's many friends. "Gabi went to jump alone, like she did very often. Getting away from the crowds in Lauterbrunnen she went to another valley known by only a very few jumpers. She couldn't out fly a ledge with her wings. Which is awkward, because she kicked ass with those wings. She did not attempt to pull. Gabi was a very good jumper, and a super nice person. I was lucky to get to know her and I will treasure her contribution to my existence. For me, it was nice to jump with another woman. It was special and it did not last long enough. Lauterbrunnen valley is empty and quiet now." Gabi is the fourth BASE wing suit fatality."
    #80 Jeff Barker, July 5, 2004
    Age: 32

    Cliff Jump

    Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest
    Impact
    Jeff is jumping with a wingsuit and he failed to clear a outcropping in freefall.
    #81 Duane Thomas, August 21, 2004 
    Age: 35

    Cliff Jump

    Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland
    Impact
    Duane, a Kiwi with a quick smile, is a well known and experienced BASE jumper. The following is from an eye witness. "The jump is witnessed by two British jumpers and two Swiss jumpers. One Brit watching, and videoing, from the exit point, the other three watching from the LZ. This is Duane's first wingsuit BASE jump, and his first jump ever with a leg mounted pilot chute pouch. Prior to this jump Duane prepared by making 50 aircraft and 2 hot air balloon wingsuit skydives. Duane had a good exit and a good flight. Everybody saw him reach for and locate the pilot chute at what the witnesses said is a reasonable altitude. He then kept his hand there and continued in freefall. The speculation is the lack of normal ground rush (like the type he is used to when not wearing a wingsuit) might have fooled him. The Swiss are yelling at him to pull and he finally did so, at what they said is about 30-feet above the ground. The canopy lifted out of the pack tray but is no where near line stretch when he impacted in a full flight position. According to the Swiss there is no fumbling around, or looking for the pilot chute handle - all the witnesses agree on this. He reached and located the pilot chute, but just took to long to deploy it. A hard pull cannot be fully discounted at this time, but all the witnesses believe he just waited too long." This is the sixth BASE wingsuit fatality since the first one occurred in September of 2002.
    Reproduced with the kind permission of Nick Di Giovanni #194. The complete list can be viewed at:
    http://www.basefatalities.info or http://hometown.aol.com/base194/myhomepage/base_fatality_list
    Other wingsuit incidents:
    Patrick de Gayardon

    Geoff Peggs or

    Dwain Weston




    Appendix C – Wingsuit site selection
    You want to open up a new object jumping a wingsuit:
    So you have become a very competent wingsuit BASE jumper and you intend to open up an object that has never been jumped with wingsuit. Here are some factors to bear in mind.
    Make sure the vertical rock drop gives you enough altitude to launch the suit and get flying with a little extra in case you have a poor exit.

    The altitude profile of the object will also affect your decision. Use tools like rock drop, laser range finder and GPS to accurately measure the object.

    When estimating the horizontal distance that can be achieved from an object remember to factor in the altitude loss from exit and deployment.

    You may also wish to consider the conditions at the exit point and whether it is practical to put on the wingsuit there.

    Booties offer little traction when wet or muddy, be careful that you have good ground to stand on for your exit

    A wingsuit takes several seconds to start generating significant lift and forward speed. Therefore jumping a wingsuit from below 1500’ offers very little benefit in terms of freefall time and object separation (but it adds some colour to the jump).

    By admin, in Disciplines,

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