You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 1
The History Lesson You Never Got
If you look at the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) reports, DiverDriver.com, our own Dropzone.com and the world’s newspaper reports, you’ll notice something interesting: the last couple of years were bad for forced landings, but good for survivors. Since December 2014, the total has been 18 forced landings, involving more than 100 occupants--but only one fatal crash (the May 2016 tragedy in Hawaii, the circumstances of which were too violent for safety restraints to have helped). Every incident is, of course, multifactorial, but there’s a simple reason that more skydivers haven’t been grievously injured or killed in these crashes: correctly installed, correctly used seatbelts. In an incident that involves a loss of power after takeoff and forces a landing, it’s seatbelts that save the jumpers’ (and pilots’) hides.
It hasn’t always been this way. Seatbelts for skydivers used to be just as casual as seatbelts for motorists used to be, in the good-old-bad-old days. In the late 1970s, very few jump planes had seat belts. Single-Cessna DZs flew third-hand airplanes that were gutted to reduce weight, while large "destination" DZs flew World War 2 surplus DC-3s and Beech 18s. These war-surplus airplanes had been through so many different owners, and gutted so many times, that the original seat belts were an ancient memory. A few rare jumpers counted themselves lucky if they had a frayed cargo strap to hold onto.
A Change in Policy
Then a series of bloody accidents in the early 1990s forced the FAA to enforce its preexisting FARs requiring seatbelts for everyone in the sky. These FARS require all skydivers to be seated and belted in for taxi, take-off and landing (as and when that eventuates). It’s easy to forget why this maybe-sometimes-silly-seeming rule was set down, but there’s lots of scar tissue to back it up. Our POPS mamas and papas learned the hard way, so we don’t have to.
The first tragedy in this particular series struck at Perris in April of 1992. Contaminated fuel caused a Twin Otter--containing two pilots and twenty jumpers--to lose power at 200 feet over the runway. The engine failed, and the pilot feathered the wrong prop, causing a total loss of thrust. When it came back down, the aircraft over-ran the runway into a drainage ditch. The airplane slammed to an abrupt halt. The fuselage collapsed all the way back to the bulkhead at the rear of the cockpit, killing both pilots instantly and sliding the unbelted skydivers to the front of the cabin, crushing or asphyxiating each other in the process. Six skydivers were taken to the hospital with serious injuries. Sixteen died. (For a detailed account, read survivor Dan Brodsky-Chenfeld's book, "Above all Else." Make sure you have Kleenex available when you do.)
The second pivotal crash occurred Labour Day 1992, in Hinckley, Illinois. That day, a Beech 18, full of holiday tandems, lost an engine shortly after take-off. They never climbed high enough to bail out. The pilot prepared to force-land in a farmer's field, but got too slow when he reduced power on the good engine. The Beech stalled, flipped and dumped the unbelted jumpers on their heads. Everyone on board was killed.
At one of the many, many Hinckley ash dives, Jack Hooker brought a keg of beer and told the gathered mourners that he had been working on a solution. He had installed prototype seatbelts in the Cessna 182 that hauled jumpers during slow days at Hinckley. He sewed custom seatbelts for aerobatic, glider and warbird pilots.
It’s a good thing he was on it. Over the winter of 1992/1993, the Federal Aviation Adminisration laid down the law for the USPA: either make seatbelts fashionable, or suffer industry-crushing regulatory consequences. From there, the USPA did a commendable job of popularizing seatbelts among skydivers. During the first AFFI course of January 1993, candidates were told to belt themselves in before taxi or they’d fail the evaluation dive. At the time, it was revolutionary, but the policy was vindicated a few months later--in the spring of 1993--when another Twin Beech crashed near Xenia, Ohio and everyone onboard survived. Soon, seatbelts became the new norm almost everywhere.
“Almost everywhere,” unfortunately, hasn’t been able to save everybody.
In July of 2006, a Twin Otter crashed in Missouri. There were some seatbelts involved, but they were incorrectly installed and incorrectly used. Unrestrained skydivers slammed into belted skydivers at high speeds. All but two skydivers were killed; the two survivors were critically injured. One of those survivors, an American Airlines pilot, was paralyzed in the accident, therefore losing his career. He took his own life.
On August 3, 2008, a Lodi, California-based King Air had a forced landing near Pitt Meadows, Canada. Because the plane had been fitted with just enough seatbelts to satisfy the FAA, but versions that were too short to wrap around the jumpers’ waists. As a result, only the pilot wore a lap-belt--and he was the least injured, because he had a proper seat and seatback. In the hard landing, all seven skydivers slammed forward in the cabin. Nobody died, but everyone on the load suffered grievously, and the jumper on the bottom of the pile ended up with a life-changing list of brain injuries.
These days, seatbelts are de rigueur on non-sketchball dropzones around the world--and that’s a relief, because their importance goes well beyond their stopping power in the event of an actual-factual crash. In the next installment, we’ll talk about how seatbelts affect everything from general flight efficiency to wild evasive swerving.
For years I've been using the Perris and Hinckley crashes as cases in point both during AFF training and when arguing with experienced jumpers about using seatbelts. It's amazing how many people won't believe your evidence unless they experienced it or were at least around for it themselves. So many are too cool or have too much mad skillz.
Another great article Annette! One special request for part two could we talk about seat-belt placement when going around the waist is not an option some people say leg-strap others chest-strap, another placement I have seen is through the side of the harness around the hip rings danger close to the reserve handle.
Seatbelts can also cause problems in some cases. A buddy on the latest LODI crash was belted thru the harness. He told me that there was no way he would have been able to unbuckle his seatbelt afterwards, couldn't even see it, another jumper had to do it for him, so imagine if there was a fire. Yes maybe it saved him or someone else in the actual crash, but maybe not. Also cases up in the air when every millisecond counts. I use seatbelts when I can, but there are some negatives, just maybe the positives outweigh them.
I was involved in a 182 crash several years ago. Had I not buckled my tandem student and myself in I would almost guarantee that we would have crushed the videographer when we came to a stop. Never in a million years would I believe that I would be involved in a plane crash let alone live thru it. The seatbelts saved us, its just that simple. Just wear them and wear them correctly! Great article Thanks for posting it.
adwilson07 the seat belts saved us in the airplane crash(I was there)! The only tandem in the crash who you are mentioning, that's true he said someone else umbucled him but the real solution might had been that the tandem instructor and the student should be using independent seat belts but not without using it! It's more likely that if the instructor pass out the student can umbucle themselves and get out of the aircraft, but seat belts are aways helpful! Emergencies in airplanes or turbulence are very violent and the seat belts helps to keep us in place!
Perhaps a review of popular skydiver seatbelts would be a nice follow up. Any system might be better than none at all, but some are definitely better suited to a given plane's configuration and type than others (straddle benches, side benches, no benches...).
Looping a seatbelt through leg-straps works well structurally, but still allows your head to flail around a huge arc, maybe developing enough momentum to crack your skill when you head finally stops at a bulkhead, floor, friend, etc.
Looping a seat-belt through a chest strap does reduce your head's flail arc, but might fail because most chest strap buckles are only 1/5 the strength of other harness buckles (500 versus 2,500 pounds).
The best place to route a belt is between your belly and your harness at waist level. Belts - around your Center of gravity - prevent you from shifting far enough to unbalance airplanes. Anchoring near your waist also shortens flail arcs for arms and legs.
Hooker belts perform the same way because they wrap around harness hip joints.
OK, GREAT topic, however, some how to pics and or how to properly wear said seatbelt would be super helpful... I say that because how many people actually route the belt thru the harness? What about us wingsuiters??? Some configurations aren't very friendly... in regards to people worrying about fire, I've got two words that we should all be carrying: HOOK KNIFE :)
More articles in this category:
- You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 4 - by Annette O'Neil (Posted: 2016-10-18)
- You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 3 - by Annette O'Neil (Posted: 2016-10-04)
- You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 2 - by Annette O'Neil (Posted: 2016-09-27)
- You Know Nothing About Seatbelts - Part 1 - by Annette O'Neil (Posted: 2016-09-20)
- How To Be A Good Passenger in a Jump Plane - by Gary Peek (Posted: 2003-08-21)